Ungleichheit, Armut und Armutsbekämpfung
Jul 6th, 2018 by Gao

Facundo Alvaredo, Lucas Chancel, Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman: Global Inequality Dynamics: New Findings from (American Economic Review, Mai 2017)

Rising inequality has attracted considerable interest in recent years, as shown by the attention received by an academic book published by one of us (Piketty 2014). Yet we still face important limitations in our ability to measure the changing distribution of income and wealth, within and between countries and at the world level. In this paper, we present new findings about global inequality dynamics from the World Wealth and Income Database ( We start with a brief history of the project. We then present selected findings on income inequality, private versus public wealth-to-income ratios, and wealth inequality, with emphasis on the contrast between the trends in the United States, China, France, and the United Kingdom…

Rob Schmitz: Xi Jinping’s War On Poverty Moves Millions Of Chinese Off The Farm (NPR, 19. Oktober 2017)

China’s government hopes city life will push tens of millions into the workforce on their way to joining the world’s largest middle class. In the first five years of Xi’s presidency, more than 60 million Chinese have risen above the poverty line; Xi wants to move 70 million more Chinese above that line within the next three years, a goal China’s government is more tightly focused on than ever. …
[O]fficials in Guizhou … plan to move more than 750,000 people off farms by the end of the year from nearly 3,600 villages.

(Es gibt einen Eugene K. Chow, der Redenschreiber für den New Yorker Bürgermeister Bill de Blasio war.)
Eugene K. Chow: China’s War on Poverty Could Hurt the Poor Most (Foreign Policy, 8. Jänner 2018)

The government is pushing people out of rural squalor — and into urban dependence.

Spencer Sheehan: China’s Hukou Reforms and the Urbanization Challenge (The Diplomat, 22. Feber 2018)

China is speeding up hukou reform, but that won’t be enough to solve the migrant worker problem.
China’s government has announced a lofty goal of expanding urban hukou or residency permits to 100 million migrant workers by 2020 as part of its plan to rebalance its economy. However, the government needs to deliver a whole range of supporting policies to achieve this goal and it may not have the financing to provide them.

Philip Alston: Report of the [UN] Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to China (PDF; 28. März 2017)

The achievements that China has made in alleviating poverty have been extraordinary. Its leadership has made a strong and genuine commitment to building a “moderately prosperous society” free of extreme poverty, thus showing political will that is impressive and all too uncommon in today’s world…
While China has done a huge amount to promote economic and social wellbeing, this has not yet been translated into an approach based on treating economic and social rights as human rights.

Javier C. Hernández: Xi Jinping Vows No Poverty in China by 2020. That Could Be Hard. (New York Times, 31. Oktober 2017)

Nearly seven decades after the Chinese Communist Party rose to power on a promise of prosperity for all, President Xi Jinping has vowed to fulfill the Communists’ original intent, staking his legacy on an ambitious plan to complete the eradication of rural poverty by 2020…
Even as Chinese cities have turned into playgrounds for the nouveau riche and the swelling ranks of the middle class, nearly 500 million people, or about 40 percent of China’s population, live on less than $5.50 per day, according to the World Bank.
“The whole idea of socialism was that all Chinese would have a reasonable living standard,” said Kerry Brown, a China scholar at King’s College London. “The nagging concern is that the Communist Party has created billionaires and a strong middle class, and yet there are still a lot of poor people. That seems to be a massive contradiction.”

Ein wichtiger Diskussionsbeitrag in diesem Zusammenhang:
Felix Wemheuer: Auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus? Kritische Anmerkungen zu den Unterstützern der heutigen KP China in der westlichen Linken (Kommunistische Debatte)

Seit dem Ende der Kulturrevolution 1976 und dem Niedergang der westeuropäischen ML-Bewegung haben sich viele Linke lange nicht mehr für die Entwicklung in China interessiert. In den letzten 15 Jahren häufen sich allerdings linke Publikationen zum Charakter der Volksrepublik. Mittlerweile ist China eine politische und wirtschaftliche Großmacht. Während mit dem chinesischen „Wirtschaftswunder“ im Westen lange nur Sweatshops und Billigwaren verbunden wurden, investiert das chinesische Kapital heute auf allen Kontinenten. Selbst in Deutschland kauft es im großen Stil Unternehmen auf. Laut den Plänen der chinesischen Regierung soll die VR zum 100. Jahrestag ihrer Gründung, 2049, ein hochentwickeltes Industrieland sein. „Der Spiegel“ rief sogar die westliche Welt dazu auf, endlich aufzuwachen, da China schon jetzt die Nummer Eins sei. Die gegenwärtige Verschiebung der globalen Machtverhältnisse können auch Linke in Europa nicht ignorieren. Allerdings gehen die Einschätzungen zum Charakter der VR weit auseinander: Theodor Bergmann sieht das Land auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus (…). Der bekannte marxistische Geograph David Harvey hingegen reihte 2005 auf dem Titelbild seines Buches „Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus“ Deng Xiaoping in eine wenig schmeichelhafte Ahnengalerie zusammen mit Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher und dem chilenischen Diktator Augusto Pinochet ein.

Wirtschaft | Korruptionsbekämpfung
Sep 26th, 2015 by Gao

Ralf Ruckus: China Crash – Der Umbau der Wirtschaft stockt (gongchao)

In den Tagen der Panikverkäufe und platzenden Blasen wirkten die chinesischen Börsen wie Spielbanken, in denen beim Roulette auf mögliche Wirtschaftstrends gesetzt wurde. Hinter dem Auf und Ab der Kurse stehen wirtschaftspolitische Manöver der herrschenden Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh) und anderer Spieler sowie langfristige Entwicklungen des chinesischen Kapitalismus.

William H. Overholt: The politics of China’s anti-corruption campaign (East Asia Forum)

Chinese ‘corruption’ is overwhelmingly graft, whereas in, for instance, the Philippines under former president Ferdinand Marcos, and in India, corruption in the narrow sense predominates. Many important Marcos-era projects were designed to fail, leaving the government in debt. In China, good roads and ports get built consistently. In India they don’t. Likewise with primary education and international sporting events.
More costly still, Japan has what’s termed ‘structural corruption’. A few major interest groups dominate the legislature to the extent that they can pervert national policy to their benefit…
In China, the scale of graft has become potentially fatal for the regime. Some claim that China’s authoritarian system inevitably causes extreme corruption and a democratic China would be much cleaner. But poor democracies typically have much more crippling corruption than China. In these countries, there are few or no political contributions other than bribes or candidate self-funding and the complexity of democratic judicial systems makes it difficult to convict criminals, which empowers wealthy criminality.

TTP | Klimawandel | Hongkong
Mai 4th, 2015 by Gao

Patrick L. Smith: The real story behind Shinzo Abe’s visit: China, TPP and what the media won’t tell you about this state visit (Salon)

In agreements reached as soon as they met Monday, Abe and President Obama have taken defense ties to an intimacy unprecedented in history. As it stands now, this breaches Article 9 of the Japanese constitution, the “no-war” clause barring Japan from military activities other than those in direct defense of its shores.
On the White House steps Tuesday, Abe confirmed his conscription as a commissioned officer in Washington’s campaign to get its ambitious trade pact, the corporate-drafted Trans-Pacific Partnership, signed this year. “We will continue to cooperate to lead the TPP talks through their last phase,” Abe said in one of those side-by-side tableaux commonly staged for the press and the television cameras…
You will hear 55 times over the next little while that, no, the escalation of defense ties has nothing to do with containing the mainland. And no, the TPP may happen to exclude China but is not intended to exclude China.

Reuters: Climate change threatens major building projects, says Chinese expert (Guardian)

Zheng Guoguang, head of China’s meteorological administration, told Monday’s issue of state newspaper the Study Times that the increase in recent weather disasters such as floods, typhoons, droughts and heat waves had a “big connection” to climate change.
Such catastrophes were a threat to big schemes such as the Three Gorges Dam and a high-altitude railway to Tibet, he said.

Liu Qin: China govt cancels green festival as public consciousness on environment grows (China Dialogue)

Chinese authorities last week ordered the last-minute cancellation of an environmental festival in Beijing that was planned to mark Earth Day, a global event aimed at raising awareness of climate change and the Paris summit at the end of the year.
China’s best-known environmental group, Friends of Nature, asked people not to turn up to its Beijing Earth Day Environmental Protection Festival after Beijing police said the event was not permitted to go ahead and that the „online impact“ of the event be toned down.

Suzanne Sataline: What Happened to Hong Kong’s Pro-Democracy Movement? (Foreign Policy)

The activists from last year’s massive democracy occupation have splintered. Nowhere is this clearer than on college campuses represented by the Hong Kong Federation of Students, one of the architects of the fall 2014 pro-democracy protests that roiled the Chinese territory. Students at three local universities have voted to quit the league of university students; more vote drives are underway. Critics, some swayed by rising nativist anger, say student leaders’ insistence on passive resistance at the height of the protests doomed the push for open elections for the city’s chief executive, instead of a slate of candidates pre-vetted by Beijing. As the wounded student group tries to shore up its membership, its allies worry that the loss of a united student front will push the already anemic pro-democracy camp closer to irrelevance.

Conal Urquhart: Chinese workers in Israel sign no-sex contract (Guardian)

Chinese workers at a company in Israel have been forced to agree not to have sex with or marry Israelis as a condition of getting a job…
The labourers are also forbidden from engaging in any religious or political activity. The contract states that offenders will be sent back to China at their own expense.
About 260,000 foreigners work in Israel, having replaced Palestinian labourers during three years of fighting. When the government first allowed the entrance of the foreign workers in the late 1990s, ministers warned of a „social timebomb“ caused by their assimilation with Israelis.
More than half the workers are in the country illegally…
Advocates of foreign workers, who also come from Thailand, the Philippines and Romania, say they are subject to almost slave conditions, and their employers often take away their passports and refuse to pay them.

Michael Forsythe: Who Owns Shares in Wang Jianlin’s Empire? Names Are Just a Start (New York Times)

James Palmer: Forced Disappearances, Brutality, and Communist China’s Politics of Fear (Vice)

Luftverschmutzung | Xi Jinping
Apr 2nd, 2015 by Gao



Charles Liu: Peking University Report Says Government is Lying about Air Pollution Problem (Nanfang)

An air quality report published by a Peking University research group has taken the government to task over its pollution data, saying the problem is worse than the government is admitting and that measures to clean up Beijing’s smoggy skies aren’t working.
Titled “Air Quality Assessment Report”, the research group found that the average daily reading of PM 2.5 levels in Beijing last year was 98.57, 15 percent higher than the government statistics that say 85.9…
This signifies that despite adopting extreme measures in Beijing to fight against air pollution for the past two years, the situation has not changed.

Willy Lam: Xi Jinping Forever (Foreign Policy)

Is China’s increasingly powerful president angling to break tradition and extend his rule indefinitely?
Foreign and Chinese observers surprised at Chinese leader Xi Jinping’s maneuvers to shake up the Chinese Communist Party (CCP) — and at the same time arrogate powers of the party, state, and military to himself — may be in for another shock. Just two and a half years into his reign, Xi appears to be angling to break the 10-year-tenure rule for the country’s supreme leader, with the aim of serving longer than any Chinese ruler in decades.
According to three sources close to top CCP officials, Xi and several top aides are making plans to ensure that the strongman will rule until at least 2027, when he will still be a relatively sprightly 74 years old.

Wukan | Shan-Staat | Immobilien
Mrz 16th, 2015 by Gao

Lynn Lee, James Leong: Wukan Votes (AlJazeera)

In late 2011, Wukan, a village in southern China, captured international attention when it rose up against decades of corrupt leadership.
The odds appeared insurmountable – Chinese authorities are not known for tolerating dissent. Still, despite a crackdown and the death of a leading activist, the unthinkable happened.
The Village Committee fell and democratic elections were announced. So what happens after a successful uprising?
This two-part series Wukan Votes begins as the elections get underway and China’s extraordinary experiment in grassroots democracy begins.

China warnt Myanmar vor erneuter Grenzverletzung (Zeit)

China hat mehrere Kampfjets an die Grenze zu Myanmar geschickt, nachdem die Explosion einer Bombe in der südwestchinesischen Provinz Yunnan am Freitag vier Menschen getötet hatte. Die Luftwaffe wolle Flugzeuge aus Myanmar über chinesischem Gebiet „verfolgen, beobachten, warnen und vertreiben“, sagte ein Sprecher. …
Die Bombe schlug in einem Zuckerrohrfeld in der Stadt Lincang ein. Vier Arbeiter wurden getötet, neun weitere verletzt. In die Region sind 60.000 Menschen aus dem nordöstlichen myanmarischen Bundesstaat Shan geflüchtet, seitdem die Streitkräfte dort gegen Rebellen vorgehen. Der Aufstand in Shan begann am 9. Februar. Die Regierung hat inzwischen den Notstand ausgerufen.

David Barboza: In China, a Building Frenzy’s Fault Lines (New York Times)

As the real estate market in the United States was collapsing in the mid-2000s, Wall Street went in search of new terrain, and found it in China. All across the country, from Beijing to Shenzhen, sprawling housing developments and business districts were popping up, seemingly overnight. Real estate prices were soaring. Western banks, hedge funds, private equity firms and other investors wanted a piece of the action.
Billions poured into Chinese real estate, and big foreign financial firms hunted for the next hit — the small bet that investors could ride to great heights.

Jan 24th, 2014 by Gao

R.G. hat diesen Link geschickt:
Christoph Heinzle: Die Prinzlinge und ihre Auslandskonten (NDR)
Dazu die Artikel in der Süddeutschen:
OffshoreLeaks (Süddeutsche)
Bastian Brinkmann, Christoph Giesen, Bastian Obermayer, Frederik Obermaier: Chinas Elite hortet Geld in Steueroasen / 中国秘密离岸避税港一一中国政府官员、太子党和富商如何为其资产避税 (Süddeutsche)

Chinas Machtelite wickelt offenbar seit etlichen Jahren heimlich und in großem Stil lukrative Geschäfte über Steueroasen ab. Auch nahe Verwandte wichtiger chinesischer Politiker steuern Transaktionen über anonyme Briefkastenfirmen in der Karibik. Das geht aus bislang vertraulichen Unterlagen – den sogenannten Offshore-Leaks-Daten – hervor.
In den Dokumenten tauchen neben dem Schwager des amtierenden Staatschefs Xi Jinping auch der Sohn, die Tochter und der Schwiegersohn von Ex-Premierminister Wen Jiabao auf. Der Name der Tochter des früheren Premiers Li Peng steht ebenso in den Unterlagen wie der Name eines Neffen zweiten Grades von Ex-Staatschef Hu Jintao. Selbst der Name eines der Schwiegersöhne des einstigen Reformers Deng Xiaoping findet sich in den Papieren. Zudem sind etliche Mitglieder des Nationalen Volkskongresses gelistet, genauso wie einige der reichsten Männer und Frauen des Landes sowie Führungskräfte staatlicher Unternehmen, die in Korruptionsskandale verwickelt waren.
Bei Offshore-Geschäften soll es gängige Praxis von Politikern sein, Firmen auf Namen von Angehörigen laufen zu lassen, um bei Enthüllungen nicht selbst mit diesen in Verbindung gebracht werden zu können. Auf Anfrage äußerte sich keine der betroffenen Politikerfamilien. Die Dokumente belegen auch, wie viel Mühe einflussreiche Chinesen offenkundig darauf verwenden, ihren Reichtum vor den Augen der Öffentlichkeit zu verbergen.

An der langen Liste der unter der Führung des ICIJ an den Recherchen beteiligten kann man die Größe des Projektes ersehen:

International Consortium for Investigative Journalism (USA): Leaked Records Reveal Offshore Holdings of China’s Elite / 中国离岸金融解密
Asahi Shimbun (Japan): 租税回避地、根を張る中国マネー 7千社が本土と関連
BBC (Großbritannien): Report reveals offshore dealings of China’s elite
CBC (Kanada): Offshore assets of China’s elite revealed in leaked records
Tiānxià zázhì / Commonwealth Magazine (Taiwan): 國庫十年流失三千億? / Taiwan’s NT$300 Billion Drain
L’Espresso (Italien): China Leaks: i soldi degli oligarchi nei paradisi fiscali
Global Mail (Australien): China’s Elite Master the Secret Offshore Cash Stash
Guardian (Großbritannien): China’s princelings storing riches in Caribbean offshore haven
Le Matin (Schweiz): Comment Credit Suisse fait son nid en Chine
Ming Pao (Hongkong): 密檔證溫家寶婿擁BVI公司 轉售股份涉溫家好友 曾向摩通收千萬顧問費
Le Monde (Frankreich): OffshoreLeaks : révélations sur l’argent caché des « princes rouges » chinois / 机密文件披露中国精英的海外资产 两万多名中国内地及香港投资者在避税天堂注册公司
Norddeutscher Rundfunk (BRD): „Offshore-Leaks“: Steueroasen und Strohmänner
Nyusŭt‘ap‘a – Korea Center for Investigative Journalism (Südkorea): 시진핑 등 中 최고위층 일가 조세피난처 行
El Pais (Spanien): La élite del régimen chino oculta empresas en paraísos fiscales
Philippine Center for Investigative Journalism (Philippinen): Leaked Records Reveal Offshore Holdings of China’s Elite
Le Soir (Belgien): Chinaleaks: les secrets offshore de la Chine
SonntagsZeitung (Schweiz): Die Geschäfte der CS mit den Prinzlingen
Süddeutsche Zeitung (BRD): Chinas Elite hortet Geld in Steueroasen
Trouw (Niederlande): De rode adel gaat offshore

Im Oktober 2012 hatte die New York Times einen ähnlichen Bericht veröffentlicht:
David Barboza: Billions in Hidden Riches for Family of Chinese Leader (New York Times)

Arbeitsmigration | Wen Jiabao
Okt 31st, 2012 by Gao

Einhard Schmidt-Kallert: Bericht Workshop zu Arbeitsmigration in China, Hongkong 14.-16. September 2012 (Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung)
Hanoi Workshop: Trade Unions in protection of labourers’ rights and benefits (Rosa-Luxemburg-Stiftung)

David Barboza: Billions in Hidden Riches for Family of Chinese Leader (New York Times)

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