Bildungswesen in Xinjiang
Jun 6th, 2017 by Gao

Die chinesische Regierung hat seit einigen Jahren Absolvent_innen der sogenannten „zweisprachigen“ Mittelschulen systematisch privilegiert. (Das sind Mittelschulen, deren Zweisprachigkeit darin besteht, dass die Muttersprache der Schüler_innen nicht Chinesisch, die Unterrichtssprache jedoch ausschließlich Chinesisch ist.)

Adrian Zenz: Problematic Privilege in Xinjiang (Diplomat)

On April 12, China’s Ministry of Education announced that the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), the restive Muslim province in China’s far west, would no longer provide added points to university entrance exam applicants from bilingual educational tracks. Bilingual education was established in 2004 with the aim to promote Chinese language education among the region’s ethnic minorities, especially the Uyghurs. In the bilingual system, the role of the minority language is typically restricted to that of a single language subject, creating a highly immersive Chinese language environment.

2016年新疆高考各批次录取分数线正式公布(新疆维吾尔自治区教育厅 / Xinjiang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayonluⱪ maarip nazariti)




James Leibold: Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable? Policy Studies 68 (2013) (PDF, East-West Centre)

There are … signs that interethnic conflict may be growing as free-market forces and increased interethnic communication and mobility intensifies ethnic-based competition… Amid this perception of crisis, Chinese academics, policymakers, and other thought-leaders are engaged in unprecedented debate over the future direction of their country’s ethnic policies… A “melting pot” model is increasingly being accepted as better for de-emphasizing ethnic consciousness, improving ethnic relations and solidifying national unity in the long run… Barry Sautman argues that [these] proposals to “curb minority rights” “emanate from a small number of Chinese academics” yet “reflect a prominent strand of thinking about ethnic policies”.

Ma Rong: The development of minority education and the practice of bilingual education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. (PDF, Case Western Reserve University)

Hintergrund zu den Protesten in Hongkong
Okt 13th, 2014 by Gao


「我們(英國人)五十年前就可以給予香港民主,但若然這樣做,中國會爆發,甚至入侵香港,這是我們的憂慮。」和黃前董事總經理馬世民(Simon Murray)在一次報章專訪中這樣說。一直以來,親北京的公眾人物和報章評論,甚至一般市民,都質疑英國為何百年來都不給香港民主,要到1984年《聯合聲明》簽署,香港前途確定以後,「才大搞民主」。其實,只要稍讀英帝國歷史,就知道在二次大戰結束後,英國在絕大部份殖民地,都實行政治改革,逐步建立由當地公民普選產生的政府,以達至獨立(如馬來西亞),或自治(如1959年的新加坡、今日的直布羅陀)。這裏所講的自治(Self-Government),是指除了國防外交,有時還包括內部保安繼續由英國負責外,所有事務都交由當地民選政府全權處理。

Gwynn Guilford: The secret history of Hong Kong’s stillborn democracy (Quartz)
Alex Lo: Hong Kong protests expose the real rot in society (South China Morning Post)

Many Hong Kong people are unhappy, but it’s unlikely they were solely driven to fight police because they were upset by Beijing restricting the choice of candidates for the future chief executive. The pan-democrats may insist on that. But people say or do one thing and usually mean something more. It is the fact of widespread social discontent that should trouble our ruling elite. If you want a picture of what’s rotten, visualise a recent newspaper front page which showed a group of ageing tycoons sitting in a semi-circle with President Xi Jinping while another photo depicted young student protesters.
That’s the rich vs poor; the old vs young; the well-connected vs the disadvantaged; those who have power and others who are voiceless. It’s a generational crisis, not just a political one. Extreme inequalities exist in education, job opportunities and social mobility.

Nick McKenzie, Richard Baker, John Garnaut: Hong Kong chief executive CY Leung faces questions over secret $7m payout from Australian firm (Sydney Morning Herald)

Hong Kong’s embattled chief executive, CY Leung, has pocketed millions in secret fees from a listed Australian company in return for supporting its Asian business ambitions, a Fairfax Media investigation can reveal.
The arrangement is outlined in a secret contract dated December 2, 2011, before he was elected chief executive, in which Australian engineering company UGL agreed to pay the Beijing-backed politician £4 million (more than $A7 million).

Jonathan Kaiman: Hong Kong pro-democracy activists reinforce barricades at protest site (Guardian)

Pro-democracy demonstrators in central Hong Kong have used cement to reinforce the barricades defending a protest site after being attacked by counter-protesters on Monday afternoon, raising the stakes in a student-led movement which has paralysed huge swaths of the city for the past 16 days.
Hours after police began removing barricades across the city on Monday morning, hundreds of men – some of them wearing surgical masks to hide their faces – stormed various protest sites, assaulting protesters and dragging away remaining barricades themselves. Some were armed with crowbars and cutting tools, according to media reports. “Open the roads,” they chanted. Police at one point formed a human barrier to keep the two sides apart.

AFP: Hong Kong leader says pro-democracy protests will not change Beijing’s stance (Guardian)
Cindy Sui: Watching Hong Kong: Taiwan on guard against China (BBC)

While improved ties with China in recent years have been welcomed by many here, others worry about Beijing’s growing influence.
Its recent refusal to let Hong Kong decide who can run for chief executive confirms Taiwanese suspicions that China would never allow Taiwan to govern itself if the two sides reunified.

Alan Yu, Kathy Gao, Clifford Lo, Jeffie Lam, Raquel Carvalho, Samuel Chan, Timmy Sung, Ng Kang-chung, Ernest Kao: A battle for the streets: clashes between Occupy activists and opponents intensify (South China Morning Post)

Hundreds of Occupy Central opponents converged on Admiralty at around lunchtime yesterday in what appeared to be a well-orchestrated and carefully timed operation to remove road barriers that had paralysed traffic for more than two weeks.
Tense confrontations and scuffles with Occupy protesters ensued, and at least 22 people were arrested.
The chaotic scenes were the first to break out at the Admiralty protest site since police backed down after using tear gas to clear the sit-in on September 28.

Suzanne Sataline: Hong Kong Protesters Are Digging In (Foreign Policy)

Outside of the Admiralty subway station in downtown Hong Kong, about 30 young people sat on the pavement near a large and dusty pile of plaster, plasterboard, and wood, which someone had scrounged from an office renovation nearby. Wearing cotton gloves and safety masks, the young men and women pulled nails from thin slats. Some used bricks to nudge the iron from the slats. The dust rose and the sound glanced off steel beams overhead. The building of new barricades had begun.





Didi Kirsten Tatlow: Relatives of People Detained for Supporting Hong Kong Protests Appeal for Their Freedom (New York Times)
可樂:佔領旺角可能分裂(獨立媒體) / Holok Chen: Hotpot, Gods, and „Leftist Pricks“: Political Tensions in the Mong Kok Occupation (Libcom)

事緣前日(9/10)在旺角佔領區發生了一個名為「旺角新村」的活動,內容包括 乒乓球、打邊爐、綿花糖等,位置遠離亞皆老街帳篷,在與山東街交接的一段較空曠的彌敦道上。同場有人策劃了名為佔領小屋設計比賽的活動,有人用紙皮建造小屋,並冠上「彌敦一號」等名號供人休息。活動的照片迅速在社交平台及網上媒體傳開,引起十分大的反應。

Kristine Kwok: Never retreat, a Mong Kok state of mind (South China Morning Post)

Mong Kok was blocked by barricades at the intersection of Nathan Road and Argyle Street. … Thirteen days on, the site has evolved from just a few barricades to a fully furnished settlement with self-made marquees, tents, beds and religious shrines.
Its occupants have faced hostility and violence from opponents and what they believe to be „defeatist“ calls for retreat from movement organisers. With a hardline stance that has left them feeling alienated from events across Victoria Harbour, the mission has taken on a life of its own.
Unlike the crowds on Hong Kong Island, this mixture of students, grass-roots underdogs, self-styled rebels and occasional white-collar workers are transforming the site into a highly adaptive and resilient ecosystem. But one thing has not changed. They refuse to be led by anyone, even while in a fight that is ultimately about choosing a leader – just one not vetted by Beijing.

Andy Xie: Stability will only return when Hong Kong ends its property tyranny (South China Morning Post)

Sky-high property prices are the root cause of the ongoing social instability in Hong Kong. When the average household would have to put aside all their salary for 10 years to afford to buy the space for a bed – never mind eating and drinking, and other living expenses – or that incomes have grown by only 10 per cent in a decade, where is the hope for ordinary people, especially the young? Unless Hong Kong restructures its property market to serve the people, instead of milking them to the last drop, the city won’t see stability again.

Josh Noble: Economic inequality underpins Hong Kong’s great political divide (Financial Times; Text auch verfügbar via [Pen-l])

On Monday CY Leung, Hong Kong chief executive, appeared to confirm protesters’ fears when he warned in an interview with the Financial Times and other foreign media that a fully open voting system would lead to populism by shifting power towards low-earners.
While Hong Kong’s establishment has stressed the importance of protecting the interests of the business community, many in the street believe political change is needed to fix economic imbalances.
“We need to think if Hong Kong should stay an international financial centre and a paradise for global capitalism,” said Rebecca Lai, a 47-year-old NGO worker at a protest site in Mongkok district. “We need to think if this is still good for the citizens.”

Mia Lamar, Fiona Law, Jacky Wong: Hong Kong Police Crackdown Draws Ire (Wall Street Journal)
Emily Tsang, Niall Fraser, Tony Cheung, Jennifer Ngo, Fanny Fung, Jeffie Lam, Lana Lam, Clifford Lo:Image problem for police as video of officers beating protester is beamed around the world (South China Morning Post)

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