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Erneuerbare Energie
Okt 24th, 2016 by Gao

John A. Mathews: China’s Continuing Renewable Energy Revolution – latest trends in electric power generation (Japan Focus)

China has made strategic choices favouring renewables over fossil fuels that are still not widely understood or appreciated. Hao Tan and I have been making these arguments for several years now, and in particular in our article in Nature in September 2014 we argued that China had overwhelming economic and energy security reasons for opting in favour of renewables, in addition to the obvious environmental benefits.1 In this article I wish to take these arguments further and update the picture to incorporate comprehensive 2015 data as well as fresh targets for 2017 and 2020…
Of course the system as a whole is still largely black – that’s what 73% dependence on fossil fuels means. But the trend, the leading edge, is definitely headed in a green direction. Over the past decade, dependence on thermal sources reached a peak of 83.3% of power generated in the two years 2006 and 2007, and has been declining each year since to reach just 73.0% in 2015 – or a 10% decline in a decade. This is a remarkably swift shift for such a large technical system – particularly one that is growing rapidly – and is the basis for targets that see thermal sources accounting for just 63% by 2020 and less than 50% by 2030. By this time the total electric power system in China would be greener than blacker…
According to China’s National Energy Administration, China invested 139.6 billion yuan (around US$21 billion) in new coal-fired power stations in 2015. This is less than a fifth of the investment in clean energy sources. In the same briefing on the electricity sector in China in 2015 the NEA revealed that investment in hydro amounted to 78.2 billion yuan (or US$11.7 billion) and in nuclear power investment was 56 billion yuan (or US$8.4 billion). So it is safe to say that China’s green investment in renewable power sources in 2015 well surpassed investment in thermal sources.

Streiks | Protest in Shanghai | Staatsbetriebe | Hongkong
Jul 6th, 2015 by Gao

Tensions rise as China’s taxi drivers and factory workers strike in record numbers (China Labour Bulletin)

China’s taxi drivers and factory workers took the lead in staging strikes and protests across the country in the second quarter of 2015 as threats to their livelihood continued to mount. Construction workers continued their protests over wage arrears but numbers were down slightly compared with earlier in the year.
Overall, China Labour Bulletin’s Strike Map recorded 568 strikes and worker protests in the second quarter, bringing the total for this year to around 1,218 incidents, not far off the total for the whole of 2014, which stood at 1,379.

Jennifer Baker: Growing Air Pollution Protest in Shanghai (Revolution News)

Anti Pollution protests against the construction of a new PX plant continue to grow in the Shanghai suburb of Jinshui. The protest that began on Monday doubled in size Thursday night when approximately 5000 people filled the streets to re-affirm their opposition.

Mirjam Meissner, Lea Shih, Luisa Kinzius, Sandra Heep: Wie Phönix aus der Asche: Reformen sollen Chinas Staatsunternehmen den Rücken stärken (Mercator Institute for China Studies)

Chinesische Staatsunternehmen sind längst Teil der sozialistischen Vergangenheit, mag manch einer denken. Tatsächlich gab es bereits in den 1990er Jahren eine erste große Privatisierungswelle. Doch noch immer spielen Staatsbetriebe eine zentrale Rolle in Chinas Wirtschaftsgeschehen. Allerdings besteht dringender Reformbedarf, denn viele Staatsunternehmen sind nicht nur hoch verschuldet, sondern trotz großzügiger Subventionen auch deutlich weniger profitabel als Chinas Privatunternehmen.

Surya Deva: After the Veto: Umbrella Movement 2.0? (Hong Kong Free Press)

Despite all the hype, the Hong Kong’s government’s “Make It Happen” campaign to introduce pseudo universal suffrage in Hong Kong fell flat on 18 June 2015. The hard stance taken by both Beijing and the Hong Kong government meant that not even one pan-democrat legislator wavered from their pledge to veto the political reform package for the Chief Executive election in 2017. Rather the voting drama that unfolded in the Legislative Council (LegCo) exposed the political immaturity of pro-establishment LegCo members.

Geostrategisches | Wanderarbeiter
Jun 21st, 2015 by Gao

Rückschlag für US-Dollar als Leitwährung: China zahlt Gazprom künftig in Yuan (RT)

China und die Russische Föderation machen Ernst mit ihrer Ankündigung, bei ihrer Geschäftsabwicklung den US-Dollar so weit wie möglich außen vor zu lassen. Sowohl die Exporte der Gazprom aus der Östlichen Sibirisch–Pazifischen Pipeline nach China als auch das Öl-Geschäft aus der Arktis werden in Zukunft in der Landeswährung Yuan getätigt.

Kenneth Shortgen jun.: There are now two reserve currencies as petro-yuan joins petro-dollar (Examiner)

Ever since Henry Kissinger forged the global petro-dollar agreement with Saudi Arabia and OPEC in 1973, the U.S. currency has remained the singular global reserve for over 40 years. However, on June 9 that sole monetary reign has come to an end as Russian gas giant Gazprom is now officially selling all oil in Chinese Yuan, making the petro-Yuan a joint global reserve, and ending America’s sole control over the world’s reserve currency.

Bart Gruzalski: An Economic Reason for the US vs. China Conflict (CounterPunch)

There are many reasons that the US is pushing on China in the South China Sea. Two articles have been published on Counterpunch in recent weeks exploring “why?” None mention an important economic reason that has, at least in part, motivated the US to go to war and is very much at stake in the growing dispute with China: the value of the dollar.

Steve LeVine: China is building the most extensive global commercial-military empire in history (Quartz)

Much has been made of Beijing’s “resource grab” in Africa and elsewhere, its construction of militarized artificial islands in the South China Sea and, most recently, its new strategy to project naval power broadly in the open seas.
Yet these profiles of an allegedly grasping and treacherous China tend to consider its ambitions in disconnected pieces. What these pieces add up to is a whole latticework of infrastructure materializing around the world. Combined with the ambitious activities of Chinese companies, they are quickly growing into history’s most extensive global commercial empire.

Mel Gurtov: Rules and Rocks: The US-China Standoff Over the South China Sea Islands (Asia-Pacific Journal)

The long-running, multi-party dispute over control of islets in the South China Sea (SCS) is worsening both in rhetoric and provocative activity. Meeting in late May at the Shangri-La Dialogue on regional security, US and Chinese defense officials sparred over responsibility for the increased tension, though they stopped short of issuing threats. In fact, all sides to the dispute say they want to avoid violence, prefer a diplomatic resolution, and support freedom of navigation. Both the US and China insist that the dispute notwithstanding, their relationship overall is positive and enduring. But China, citing its indisputable sovereignty over the SCS, is backing its claim in ways that alarm the US and several Asian governments: construction of an air strip on the Spratly Islands, a land reclamation project that has artificially expanded its claimed territory, and most recently emplacement of two mobile artillery vehicles.
Accompanying these latest Chinese actions are acknowledgments by the foreign ministry of their military purposes. The original explanation of China’s expanding presence on the islands was that they were intended for search-and-rescue operations, environmental protection, and scientific work. Now the explanation is the need to protect Chinese territory. The Pentagon has responded by publicly discussing US options such as flyovers and navigation in Chinese-claimed air and sea space. A US navy surveillance aircraft has already challenged China’s sovereignty claim by overflying Fiery Cross Reef in the Spratlys, prompting a Chinese order (which the aircraft ignored) to leave the area. In the meantime, US military assistance to other claimants, including Vietnam and the Philippines, has enabled their coast guards to at least keep an eye on Chinese activities.

John Bellamy Foster: Marxism, Ecological Civilization, and China (Monthly Review)

China’s leadership has called in recent years for the creation of a new „ecological civilization.“ Some have viewed this as a departure from Marxism and a concession to Western-style „ecological modernization.“ However, embedded in classical Marxism, as represented by the work of Karl Marx and Frederick Engels, was a powerful ecological critique. Marx explicitly defined socialism in terms consistent with the development of an ecological society or civilization — or, in his words, the „rational“ regulation of „the human metabolism with nature.“
In recent decades there has been an enormous growth of interest in Marx’s ecological ideas, first in the West, and more recently in China. This has generated a tradition of thought known as „ecological Marxism.“
This raises three questions: (1) What was the nature of Marx’s ecological critique? (2) How is this related to the idea of ecological civilization now promoted in China? (3) Is China actually moving in the direction of ecological civilization, and what are the difficulties standing in its path in this respect?

Lynette H. Ong: Breaking Beijing? (Foreign Affairs)

Chinese President Xi Jinping is leading one of the most vigorous campaigns against corruption and dissent since the Mao era. In fact, it appears that his campaign has extended as far as Canada; Beijing is attempting to extradite the Vancouver-based businessman Mo Yeung (Michael) Ching for alleged corrupt business dealings in the mid-1990s. Ching is the son of Cheng Weigao, a senior Chinese Communist Party (CCP) official who was charged with corruption in 2003. Some view these campaigns as the key to restoring the CCP’s strength and legitimacy. Others predict that they will be destabilizing because of the scale, opaqueness, and intensity—by attacking both “tigers” and “flies” (that is, high- and low-level officials), Xi is striking at the core of the patronage networks that hold the political system together, weakening the party from within. And by tightening the reins on public discourse through an increasingly centralized censorship apparatus, Xi is further diminishing his party’s legitimacy.

Chasing Shadows: Policing Migrants in Guangzhou’s Urban Villages (Chuang)
Patti Waldmeir: China’s rural migrants: life as a trashpicker in a Shanghai hole (Financial Times)

AP: Chinese women’s rights group collapses under official pressure (Guardian)

Suzanne Sataline: ‘Hong Kong Is Quite Seriously Divided’ (Foreign Policy)

Democracy — even a half-cooked version with Chinese characteristics — will not be coming soon to Hong Kong. On June 18, the city’s legislature, the Legislative Council, vetoed a constitutional amendment that would have let Hong Kong voters cast ballots for their chief executive — albeit for a maximum of 3 candidates, restricted and vetted by Beijing — in 2017.

Jonathan Mirsky: China’s Panchen fires a surprise ‚poisoned dart‘ at Beijing (Nikkei Asian Review)

China’s 11th Panchen Lama, Tibet’s second-highest religious leader, „discovered“ and installed by Beijing, recently expressed alarm that Buddhism in Tibet may soon exist in name only because of a shortage of monks — the implication being that the shortage was due to Chinese policy. Will this unexpected criticism be seen as a „poisoned arrow“ by the Chinese Communist Party, like the one for which his predecessor, the 10th Panchen Lama, was punished in the 1960s? And if so, will he, also, face punishment?

David Dawson: No, that trite folklore isn’t Chinese (World of Chinese)

Ignorance of other cultures can be a marvelous thing sometimes. It allows you to attribute whatever you want to that culture, and come off sounding wise.
Chinese wisdom is a popular target here. How many hokey bits of wisdom have been attributed to ancient Chinese philosophers? After all, sometimes it’s pretty easy to confuse them for pop culture pap.

Zhou Dongxu: China Prepares ‚Traditional Culture‘ Textbooks for Its Officials (Caixin)

Streik | Atomkraft | Monsanto | 1989
Mai 30th, 2015 by Gao

Elaine Hui: Chinese Bike Light Strikers Occupy Factory, Face Firings and Arrests (Labor Notes)

Workers who make bike lights at a factory in Shenzhen, China, have been on strike since April 30, demanding that the company pay up what it legally owes them.
The strikers stayed overnight in the factory, stopping production and delivery for two weeks, until police came to evict them and arrest worker leaders on May 13.
New An Lun Lamp, a Taiwanese-owned factory, produces bicycle lights for brands including the German Messingschlager and Buchel and the Dutch AXA.
There are about 100 workers in the factory, mostly middle-aged women, with some nearing retirement.
Though their actions have been peaceful, thus far 13 workers have been fired and nine arrested by police for “disrupting public order.”
Seven out of the nine detained workers were released within 24 hours. The other two—including one of the workers’ elected representatives—were held by police for seven days. During the police raid on May 13 these two clutched the legs of the general manager and his son, crying and begging them not to remove the finish goods.

Migrant worker in Nanjing cheated out of compensation and left to die (China Labour Bulletin)

Listed in Shanghai, Hong Kong, London and New York, China Petroleum and Chemical Corp (Sinopec) is one of China’s largest and best-known companies. It has a vast network of subsidiaries including Yangzi Petrochemical based in Nanjing. This company reportedly owns or has an interest in Nanjing Yangzi Maintenance and Installation (南京扬子检修安装), which employed Chen Dejun, a young migrant worker from the neighbouring province of Anhui.
Chen started work at Yangzi Maintenance and Installation in July 2010. Within 18 months, he started to experience dizziness, irregular heartbeat, headaches and tremors – all the symptoms of benzene poisoning, and almost certainly the result of his work doing spray-painting, acid washing, chemical cleaning and toxic waste disposal at the plant.
Today, Chen is seriously ill and bedridden but he has still not received any compensation because his employer did everything it could to prevent his illness from being classified by the authorities as an occupational disease.

Robert Foyle Hunwick: Desperate Chinese are turning to mass suicide to get their government’s attention (Global Post)

The location was chosen for maximum impact: a downtown boulevard, famous for Beijing’s swankiest shops and its plushest hotels. Studded with these symbols of Western capitalist chic, Wangfujing Shopping Street could hardly be further from the more desperate concerns of rural China.
It was here that a group of about 30 men gathered on a warm spring morning and, in front of hundreds of shoppers, swallowed a quantity of pesticide. They fell to the ground en masse and, according to several eyewitnesses, foamed at the mouth.
As the men were rushed to hospital, startled crowds spread the news on social media, while the scene quickly returned to normal. Police issued a statement later that day that none had died; local reports explained they were taxi drivers from the northeast, who’d traveled to the capital to stage the protest…
In August 2013, a group of 21, also from Heilongjiang, attempted mass suicide near the Beijing West rail station, after a railway company failed to provide their children with the public-service jobs they were promised. Four months later, 13 homeowners attempted the same over a failure to be compensated for demolitions. In two incidents in July last year, five petitioners drank poison in a police station, and five men and two women from Jiangsu, did the same outside the offices of the China Youth Daily newspaper. They were dissatisfied with the terms of their eviction.

孟山都滚出中国! (monsanto-out-of-china.org)

Emma Graham-Harrison: China warned over ‚insane‘ plans for new nuclear power plants (Guardian)

China’s plans for a rapid expansion of nuclear power plants are “insane” because the country is not investing enough in safety controls, a leading Chinese scientist has warned.
Proposals to build plants inland, as China ends a moratorium on new generators imposed after the Fukushima disaster in March 2011, are particularly risky, the physicist He Zuoxiu said, because if there was an accident it could contaminate rivers that hundreds of millions of people rely on for water and taint groundwater supplies to vast swathes of important farmlands.
China halted the approval of new reactors in 2011 in order to review its safety standards, but gave the go-ahead in March for two units, part of an attempt to surpass Japan’s nuclear-generating capacity by 2020 and become the world’s biggest user of nuclear power a decade later.
Barack Obama recently announced plans to renew a nuclear cooperation deal with Beijing that would allow it to buy more US-designed reactors, and potentially pursue the technology to reprocess plutonium from spent fuel…
He, who worked on China’s nuclear weapons programme, said the planned rollout was going too fast to ensure it had the safety and monitoring expertise needed to avert an accident.
“There are currently two voices on nuclear energy in China. One prioritises safety while the other prioritises development,” He told the Guardian in an interview at the Chinese Academy of Sciences.
He spoke of risks including “corruption, poor management abilities and decision-making capabilities”. He said: “They want to build 58 (gigawatts of nuclear generating capacity) by 2020 and eventually 120 to 200. This is insane.”

Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian: These Chinese People Want High-Speed Rail So Badly They Are Fighting Police to Get It (Foreign Policy)

On May 16, thousands of people carrying banners marched through the streets of Linshui, a county in the southwest Chinese province of Sichuan. Some shouted slogans while others hurled rocks at lines of police in riot gear, who pushed back against the crowds and beat some with batons. Photographs show several people with bloody head injuries being cared for by paramedics and onlookers. Linshui residents turned out in droves, burned vehicles, and braved riot police for more than eight hours — not to protest inequality, corruption, or environmental degradation, but to demand that a high-speed rail line be built through their county.

Wolfgang Pomrehn: Chinas Investitions-Offensive (Telepolis)

Die Volksrepublik verstärkt ihren Kapitalexport und steckt viel Geld in den Aufbau von Eisenbahnen und anderer Infrastruktur in befreundeten Ländern.

Gu Yi etc.: On the 26th Anniversary of Tian’anmen Massacre (Sri Lanka Guardian)

We are a group of Chinese students born in the 1980s and 1990s and now studying abroad. Twenty-six years ago on June 4th, young students, in life’s prime with innocent love for their country just as we are today, died under the gun of the People’s Liberation Army in Beijing’s streets.

境外势力试图煽动八零后九零后(《环球时报》 im Google-Speicher. Das Original wurde mittlerweile gelöscht.)

十几名自称是“八零后和九零后”的在美“中国留学生”日前联署了一封致国内青年学生的公开信,就八九政治风波发表充满“民运味”、像是被手把手教着写出来的极端观点。它以十分凶悍的语言攻击中国现政权,照抄海外一些势力的话语歪曲讲述26年前发生的事情。通常来说,中国大陆赴美留学生即使思想发生一些变化,也写不出如此赤裸裸攻击祖国的文稿。

Hostile forces target younger generation (Global Times)

Eleven Chinese students born in the 1980s or 1990s and studying in the US recently signed an open letter to their counterparts in the mainland. The letter carries their extreme views on the 1989 Tiananmen incident in the tone that used to be adopted by much older pro-democracy activists. It harshly attacked the current Chinese regime, twisting the facts of 26 years ago with narratives of some overseas hostile forces. Generally, even if changes in thought do take place, it’s unlikely for mainland students who study in the US to lash out at their homeland in such an insulting way.

Emma Graham-Harrison: Chinese students in the west call for transparency over Tiananmen Square (Guardian)
范凌志:香港左翼爱国团体立场坚定反对泛民(《环球时报》)

Writing China: Rian Thum, ‘The Sacred Routes of Uyghur History’ (Wall Street Journal)

Julian Ryall: China plans for North Korean regime collapse leaked (Washington Post)

China has drawn up detailed contingency plans for the collapse of the North Korean government, suggesting that Beijing has little faith in the longevity of Kim Jong-un’s regime.
Documents drawn up by planners from China’s People’s Liberation Army that were leaked to Japanese media include proposals for detaining key North Korean leaders and the creation of refugee camps on the Chinese side of the frontier in the event of an outbreak of civil unrest in the secretive state.

Paul Mason: How to turn a liberal hipster into a capitalist tyrant in one evening (Guardian)

A new play, World Factory, asks the audience to run a clothing factory in China – and even the creators have been surprised at how people have behaved.

Frank Langfitt: How China’s Censors Influence Hollywood (NPR)

Harmonie etc. p. p.
Apr 12th, 2015 by Gao

中共中央 国务院关于构建和谐劳动关系的意见(新华)

劳动关系是生产关系的重要组成部分,是最基本、最重要的社会关系之一。劳动关系是否和谐,事关广大职工和企业的切身利益,事关经济发展与社会和谐。党和国家历来高度重视构建和谐劳动关系,制定了一系列法律法规和政策措施并作出工作部署。各级党委和政府认真贯彻落实党中央和国务院的决策部署,取得了积极成效,总体保持了全国劳动关系和谐稳定。但是,我国正处于经济社会转型时期,劳动关系的主体及其利益诉求越来越多元化,劳动关系矛盾已进入凸显期和多发期,劳动争议案件居高不下,有的地方拖欠农民工工资等损害职工利益的现象仍较突出,集体停工和群体性事件时有发生,构建和谐劳动关系的任务艰巨繁重。

Chun Han Wong: China Aims to Soothe Labor Unrest (Wall Street Journal)

As slowing growth fuels labor unrest in the world’s second-largest economy, China’s top leadership is pushing for greater efforts to foster harmony across its increasingly agitated workforce.
In a recent directive, top Communist Party and government officials called on party cadres and bureaucrats across the country to “make the construction of harmonious labor relations an urgent task,” to ensure “healthy economic development” and to consolidate the party’s “governing status.”

女权主义者被拘第35天,公民寄出媒体报道呼吁检方不予批捕(Evernote)
Edward Wong: Chinese Police Seeking Charges Against Detained Women’s Activists, Lawyer Says (New York Times)

Tingting Shen: Inside the world of China’s trans sex workers (Gay Star News)

Reuters: 2000 police used to quell pollution protest in China which left one dead (Guardian)

One person died and 50 were arrested after some 2,000 police, using rubber bullets, tear gas and water cannons, put down a protest by villagers against pollution from a chemical plant in China’s Inner Mongolia, an overseas human rights group said…
In the latest incident, villagers in Naiman Banner took to the streets to protest against a chemical processing zone they said was polluting farmland and grazing land, the New York-based Southern Mongolian Human Rights Information Centre said in a statement late on Monday.
The group quoted a witness as saying police used rubber bullets, tear gas and water cannons to disperse the demonstrators, leading to one death.

2015年春季人才流动分析报告(智联招聘~中商情报网)

智联招聘发布的《2015春节白领跳槽调研》报告中显示,在12228份调查问卷中,47.8%的白领已经在春节前后更新了简历在找工作中,而有13.7%的白领已经办理了离职或新工作的入职手续。超过半数的白领在春季选择了跳槽。
   当跳槽已成为职场常态。白领怎么跳?跳去哪里?在跳槽的过程中职业规划发生了哪些改变?为此,智联招聘根据2015年春节后白领投递简历行为的全站大数据,独家发布《2015春季人才流动分析报告》为广大白领解读跳槽的方向与选择。

Chun-Wei Yap: Amid Corruption Crackdown, 10,000 Chinese Officials Want New Jobs (Wall Street Journal)

David E. Sanger, Rick Gladstone: Piling Sand in a Disputed Sea, China Literally Gains Ground (New York Times)

The clusters of Chinese vessels busily dredge white sand and pump it onto partly submerged coral, aptly named Mischief Reef, transforming it into an island.
Over a matter of weeks, satellite photographs show the island growing bigger, its few shacks on stilts replaced by buildings. What appears to be an amphibious warship, capable of holding 500 to 800 troops, patrols the reef’s southern opening.

Patrick McGee, Jamil Anderlini: China inflation misses Beijing target (Financial Times)

Subdued demand and falling oil prices last month pulled Chinese inflation well below Beijing’s target of “around 3 per cent” for this year.
China’s consumer price index maintained a sluggish year-on-year pace of 1.4 per cent in March, the same rate as in February, according to the government’s official figures.
Forecasters had predicted the CPI would decelerate to 1.3 per cent.
However, the bigger problem was at factory gates. Producer prices deflated for a 37th consecutive month in March, falling 4.6 per cent, versus a 4.8 per cent fall in February.
That is the longest period of factory gate deflation in China on record.

Pengpeng: “This society is creating angry youth”: memoir of a punk in Wuhan (Chuǎng)

Kaiser Kuo, David Moser, Rogier Creemers: Cyber Leninism and the Political Culture of the Chinese Internet (China File)

Tania Branigan: Top Chinese TV presenter filmed insulting Mao at private dinner (Guardian)

Kohle
Feb 1st, 2015 by Gao

AP: Coal Production Drops in China for 1st Time in 14 Years (New York Times)

China recorded its first drop in coal production since 2000 last year, as the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitter pulls back on its use of the fossil fuel and switches to cleaner energy sources.
According to the country’s national coal association, China produced 3.5 billion tons of coal in the first 11 months of 2014, 2.1 percent less than the same period in 2013. The association estimates the drop for the entire year will reach 2.5 percent.

The Guardian view on coal in China: digging down (Guardian)

The People’s Republic appears to be mining and burning less fuel than before. Excellent news for the planet – if it’s true.

Jamil Anderlini, Lucy Hornby: China moves to limit coal glut (Financial Times; Link via Google News)

China has slapped a moratorium on new coal mines in its eastern regions as it battles an enormous supply glut.
As with swaths of Chinese industry, coal production is racked by overcapacity and falling prices, contributing to the slowdown that saw the economy expand 7.4 per cent last year, the slowest annual pace in nearly a quarter of a century.

China’s miners take a stand as coal production falls for first time in 14 years (China Labour Bulletin)

While environmentalists are hailing the drop in China’s coal production last year, it is the country’s miners who are feeling the immediate impact, with mines closing down and wages withheld for months on end…
[M]ore and more miners have staged protests demanding payment of wages, social security and redundancy pay. And it is not just coal miners, iron ore miners, who are also affected by the economic slowdown, have staged protests as well. In the final quarter of 2014, CLB’s Strike Map recorded a total of 17 protests by miners across the country, compared with just a handful of protests in the whole of the previous year.

AFP: China manufacturing shrinks for the first time in two years, survey shows (Guardian)

China’s manufacturing activity contracted for the first time in more than two years in January, an official survey showed on Sunday, signalling further downward pressure on the world’s second-largest economy.
The official purchasing managers’ index (PMI) released by the national bureau of statistics came in at 49.8 last month, down from the 50.1 recorded in December.
The index, which tracks activity in factories and workshops, is considered a key indicator of the health of China’s economy. A figure above 50 signals expansion, while anything below indicates contraction.

Außerdem:
AFP: China says no room for ‚western values‘ in university education (Guardian)

China’s education minister has vowed to ban university textbooks which promote “western values”, state media said, in the latest sign of ideological tightening under President Xi Jinping.
“Never let textbooks promoting western values appear in our classes,” minister Yuan Guiren said, according to a report late Thursday by China’s official Xinhua news agency.
“Remarks that slander the leadership of the Communist Party of China” and “smear socialism” must never appear in college classrooms, he added according to Xinhua.

Urbanisierung | Wachstum | Lateinamerika
Jan 30th, 2015 by Gao

Eli Friedman: The Urbanization of the Chinese Working Class (Jacobin)

China has problems. Not despite thirty-five years of record-breaking growth, but because of it. The country’s dependence on exports and investment-led development has resulted in stark inequality, underconsumption, over-investment, disappearing arable land, exorbitant housing prices, and a looming environmental catastrophe. This leaves China increasingly vulnerable to a number of potential crises: external economic shocks, housing market collapse, mass defaults on public debt, and fits of social unrest.
What, then, might ensure the stability of Chinese capitalism for another generation?
For the state, a big part of the answer is urbanization. In the recently released National New Urbanization Plan (2014–2020), the central government calls for more than 100 million people to move to cities by 2020, pushing China’s urban population to 60 percent. The plan sets out admirable goals such as an expansion of public housing, education, and health services, a reduction in carbon emissions and other environmentally destructive activities, and preservation of agricultural land through limits on sprawl.

Jonathan Kaiman, Heather Stewart: Hard times return as China bids to bring its economic miracle to an end (Guardian)

Beijing insists slow growth is part of a plan to bring years of explosive expansion under control. But the global slowdown may make it hard to soft-land an economy still hooked on exports…
Official figures published last week showed that China’s GDP expanded by 7.4% in 2014. That was a significant drop from the 7.7% seen in 2013, and the weakest rate of growth since 1990…

Ralf Streck: China mischt den „Hinterhof“ der USA auf (Telepolis)

Nicht nur der Brics-Staat Russland treibt im Zuge der Sanktionspolitik der USA und Europas verstärkt Projekte in Lateinamerika voran (…). Den großen Wurf will nun das große Brics-Land China in der Region machen, die in den USA so gerne als „Hinterhof“ bezeichnet wird. In Washington ist man nicht sehr erfreut darüber, dass allein China im kommenden Jahrzehnt rund 250 Milliarden US-Dollar in Mittel- und Südamerika und der Karibik investieren will, womit sich das Handelsvolumen auf eine halbe Billion verdoppeln soll. Wichtigster Handelspartner Brasiliens (ebenfalls ein Brics-Staat) ist schon jetzt nicht mehr die USA, sondern China. Und das gilt auch schon für Chile und Peru. Über diese Entwicklung ist das Imperium im Norden besorgt. Das Tauwetter zwischen den USA und Kuba muss in diesem Zusammenhang gesehen werden.

Nebenbei:
Geoffrey Crothall: People’s Daily tries and fails to understand problem of wage arrears in China (China Labour Bulletin)
Ian Johnson: The Rat Tribe of Beijing (AlJazeera)
APA: Bürgermeister: Peking „wirklich nicht lebenswert“ (Standard)
Reuters: China stellt Milizen an der Grenze zu Nordkorea auf (Standard)
Catherine Phillips: $242 Billion High-Speed Beijing-Moscow Rail Link Approved (Newsweek)
APA: Chinesen bauen Bostoner U-Bahn (Standard)

Klimawandel | Hongkong | Erdgas-Abkommen
Nov 15th, 2014 by Gao

Markus hat diese Artikel geschickt:
Markus Ackeret: Gemeinsam gegen den Klimawandel (Neue Zürcher Zeitung)

China und die USA haben sich beim Klimawandel auf ein gemeinsames Vorgehen geeinigt und neue Emissionsziele angekündigt. Das Treffen der Präsidenten Xi und Obama in Peking scheint auch sonst produktiv gewesen zu sein.

Andreas Rüesch: Überfälliger Schulterschluss in der Klimapolitik (Neue Zürcher Zeitung)

Erstmals haben sich die USA und die China gemeinsam auf Ziele beim Klimaschutz verständigt. Das ist ein überfälliger Schritt, aber er wird nicht ausreichen, um die Gefahren des Klimawandels zu bannen.

Lam Chi Leung: We’ve already won results (Socialist Review)

Today (28 October) marks exactly one month since the Umbrella movement broke out. The occupation of the streets continues, but the number of demonstrators has started to decrease from its peak of 200,000…
The masses, with courage and reason, insist upon occupation. But people know it will not be easy to obtain concessions from the authorities — or a real promise of universal suffrage.

Au Loong Yu: 雨傘運動的自發性和自覺性(獨立媒體) / Hong Kong: Spontaneity and the mass movement (Socialist Review)

The retaking of the Mong Kok district of Hong Kong by occupiers on 18 October relied on the courage of protesters, most of whom have never been a member of a political party. These new participants in the movement faced up to police violence with huge determination.
Both workers and students from middle and lower class backgrounds have long been dissatisfied with Hong Kong’s extreme economic inequality. Society here has always been divided between the 1 percent of the super-rich and the 99 percent of the middle and lower classes. Moreover, the tiny group of tycoons has in recent years launched a number of offensives: privatisation, deregulation and the shifting of wealth to the rich through white elephant projects.

Wolfgang Pomrehn: China kann sein Glück kaum fassen (Telepolis)

In Chinas Hauptstadt Beijing (Peking) ist am heutigen Dienstag die 21 Mitglieder starke Konferenz für Asiatisch-Pazifische Zusammenarbeit APEC zusammengetreten. Ihr gehören unter anderem auch Japan, Russland und die USA an. Gekommen sind zu dem Treffen meist die jeweiligen Staats- und Regierungschefs, unter anderem also auch US-Präsident Barack Obama, Australiens Premier Tony Abbott, Chiles Präsidentin Michelle Bachelet und Japans Premier Shinzo Abe. Als eines der ersten Ergebnisse wurde bereits am Dienstag der Startschuss für Verhandlungen über eine pazifische Freihandelszone gegeben.

„Umweltkultur“ und Getreideproduktion
Nov 12th, 2014 by Gao

Zhihe Wang, Huili He, Meijun Fan: The Ecological Civilization Debate in China (Monthly Review)

China is facing many serious environmental issues, including pollution in the air, groundwater, and soil. These problems have increased since China surpassed Japan as the world’s second-largest economy—and in spite of the Chinese government’s 2007 proposal to build an “ecological civilization,” and writing “ecological civilization” into the Chinese Communist Party’s (CCP) constitution in 2012.

Zhun Xu, Wei Zhang, Minqi Li: China’s Grain Production. A Decade of Consecutive Growth or Stagnation? (Monthly Review)

Some progressive writers have argued that while China’s agricultural privatization achieved short-term gains, it did so by undermining long-term production facilities such as the infrastructure and public services built in the socialist era. Environmental scholars have questioned the sustainability of the Chinese agriculture. In a report published in 1995, Lester R. Brown raised the question: “Who will feed China?” He argued that the Chinese population’s changing diet, shrinking cropland, stagnating productivity, and environmental constraints would lead to a widening gap between China’s food supply and demand, a gap the world’s leading grain exporters would not be able to fill.

Ältere Artikel:
Zhihe Wang: Ecological Marxism in China (Monthly Review)
Wen Tiejun, Lau Kinchi, Cheng Cunwang, Huili He, Qiu Jiansheng: Ecological Civilization, Indigenous Culture, and Rural Reconstruction in China (Monthly Review)
Zhihe Wang, Meijun Fan, Hui Dong, Dezhong Sun, Lichun Li: What Does Ecological Marxism Mean For China? Questions and Challenges for John Bellamy Foster (Monthly Review)

Wirtschaftspolitik | Umweltschutz | Konfliktbereitschaft
Aug 29th, 2014 by Gao

Rolf Geffken: Wohin treibt Chinas Wirtschaftspolitik? (Rat & Tat)

Die amtliche chinesische Statistik schätzt das gegenwärtige Wirtschaftswachstum Chinas auf max. 7 %. Diese Rate liegt nicht nur unter den Raten der letzten 10 Jahre, sie liegt auch unter der Mindesthöhe, die für die Schaffung neuer Arbeitsplätze insbesondere der nachwachsenden Generation dringend eingehalten werden muss. … Doch gibt es in der aktuellen Wirtschafts- und Sozialpolitik der chinesischen Regierung keine klare Linie. So wird aller Voraussicht nach die sog. „Mixed Reform“ der Staatsbetriebe einen Abbau von Arbeitsplätzen und von Sozialstandards zur Folge haben.

Rolf Geffken: Nachhaltigkeit in China? (Rat & Tat)

Es gilt hiesigen Experten als ausgemacht, dass Chinas Umweltpolitik nicht nachhaltig ist und die Zerstörung der Umwelt im Reich der Mitte unaufhaltsam fortschreitet. Wir wollen an dieser Stelle nicht mit eigenen „Recherchen“ aufwarten sondern Beobachtungen wiedergeben, die wir während eines über einmonatigen Aufenthaltes in der Hauptstadt der Provinz Jiangsu und ehemaligen Landeshauptstadt Nanjing gemacht haben

Rolf Geffken: Recht & Innere Sicherheit (Rat & Tat)

China-Consultants wissen es angeblich genau: „Der Chinese“ meidet den Streit, vor allem den Rechtsstreit … Wer solchen Unsinn noch heute liest, sollte die Quelle recht schnell entsorgen. Sie ist unbrauchbar. Allein die seit Jahren anhaltend wachsende Zahl von Arbeitsrechtsstreitigkeiten vor dem Schiedskommissionen der Arbeitsverwaltungen und die wachsende Zahl von Klagen sogar gegen staatliche Institutionen sprechen eine deutliche Sprache. Die Konfliktbereitschaft gegenüber Arbeitgebern und staatlichen Behörden wächst ständig.

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