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Überwachung und Umerziehung in Xinjiang
Aug 2nd, 2018 by Gao

James A. Millward: What It’s Like to Live in a Surveillance State (New York Times)

Imagine that this is your daily life: While on your way to work or on an errand, every 100 meters you pass a police blockhouse. Video cameras on street corners and lamp posts recognize your face and track your movements. At multiple checkpoints, police officers scan your ID card, your irises and the contents of your phone. At the supermarket or the bank, you are scanned again, your bags are X-rayed and an officer runs a wand over your body — at least if you are from the wrong ethnic group. Members of the main group are usually waved through.
You have had to complete a survey about your ethnicity, your religious practices and your “cultural level”; about whether you have a passport, relatives or acquaintances abroad, and whether you know anyone who has ever been arrested or is a member of what the state calls a “special population.”
This personal information, along with your biometric data, resides in a database tied to your ID number. The system crunches all of this into a composite score that ranks you as “safe,” “normal” or “unsafe.”Based on those categories, you may or may not be allowed to visit a museum, pass through certain neighborhoods, go to the mall, check into a hotel, rent an apartment, apply for a job or buy a train ticket. Or you may be detained to undergo re-education, like many thousands of other people.
A science-fiction dystopia? No. This is life in northwestern China today if you are Uighur.

Adrian Zenz: New Evidence for China’s Political Re-Education Campaign in Xinjiang (China Brief / Jamestown Foundation)

Since summer of 2017, troubling reports in Western media outlets about large-scale detentions of ethnic Muslim minorities (…) in the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR) have multiplied …
This article demonstrates that there is, in fact, a substantial body of PRC governmental sources that prove the existence of the camps. Furthermore, the PRC government’s own sources broadly corroborate some estimates by rights groups of number of individuals interred in the camps…
The article also examines the evolution of re-education in Xinjiang, empirically charting the unprecedented re-education drive initiated by the region’s Party secretary, Chen Quanguo. Information from 73 government procurement and construction bids valued at around RMB 680 million (approximately USD 108 million) along with public recruitment notices and other documents provide unprecedented insights into the evolution and extent of the region’s re-education campaign.

Weißbuch und Ramadan
Jun 13th, 2016 by Gao

Das Informationsbüro des Staatsrates hat ein neues Weißbuch herausgebracht:
新疆的宗教信仰自由状况 | Freedom of Religious Belief in Xinjiang (Xinhua)

历史上,新疆的宗教关系十分复杂。新中国成立以前,不同宗教之间、同一宗教的不同教派之间发生过多次冲突,甚至在局部地区爆发了长达数十年的宗教战争和数百年的教派纷争。宗教战争和冲突,不仅对经济社会造成严重破坏,也给人民带来深重灾难,使人们失去信仰自由。
  1949年新中国成立后,新疆各族人民真正获得了宗教信仰自由的权利。中央政府和新疆地方各级政府全面落实民族区域自治制度,贯彻实施宗教信仰自由政策,不断完善宗教事务管理法律法规,新疆各宗教迎来了和谐共处的历史新阶段。

Die aktuelle westliche Berichterstattung über Xinjiang ist weniger optimistisch:
AFP: China bans Ramadan fasting in Muslim region (Khaleej Times)

„Party members, cadres, civil servants, students and minors must not fast for Ramadan and must not take part in religious activities,“ a notice posted Thursday on the government website of central Xinjiang’s Korla city said.
„During the Ramadan month, food and drink businesses must not close,“ it added.
A Uighur official in the city’s Tiekeqi township named Ahmatjan Tohti told a group of men wearing traditional doppa hats at a meeting last Monday that officials should „resolutely stop party members, civil servants, students and minors from entering mosques for religious activities“ during the festival, a separate report posted on the website last Tuesday said.
A website run by the education bureau of the regional capital Urumqi’s Shuimogou district posted a notice last Monday calling for „prevention of students and teachers from all schools from entering mosques for religious activities“, during Ramadan.
In the northern city of Altay, officials agreed to „increase contact with parents“, to „prevent fasting during Ramadan“, according to a post Friday on the state-run China Ethnicities Religion website.
Meanwhile the website of the Qapqal Xibe Autonomous County government in northwest Xinjiang said Monday that restaurants in the area would be instructed to stay open during Ramadan to „ensure that the broader masses have normal access to cuisine“.

Michael Martina: China says there is no discrimination in Xinjiang ahead of Ramadan (Reuters)

„During the holy Islamic month of Ramadan, whether to close or open halal restaurants is completely determined by the owners themselves without interference,“ a government report on religious freedom in Xinjiang said.
„No citizen suffers discrimination or unfair treatment for believing in, or not believing in, any religion,“ the report said, adding that „religious feelings and needs are fully respected“.
Those pledges appeared to be at odds with some local policies.

何山:穆斯林斋月 新疆严控连坐式维稳 (Radio Free Asia)

穆斯林斋戒月周一(6日)开始,本台记者获悉,中国官方推出多项维稳手段,严控穆斯林斋月。除以往的进驻清真寺,限制公职人员、党员和学生封斋外,还采取连坐惩罚手段,并增派武装力量对维族社区进行网格化管理。而喀什和阿克苏地区分别传出民众因封斋遭打压,但该消息没能得到官方确认。

ئۇيغۇرلار بۇ يىللىق رامىزاننىڭ يەنىلا چەكلىمىلەر ئىچىدە داۋاملىشىۋاتقانلىقىنى بىلدۈردى (Radio Free Asia)
ئۇيغۇر ئېلىدا بۇ يىللىق رامىزان ئېيىنىڭ قاتتىق چەكلىمە ئىچىدە باشلانغانلىقى ئاشكارا بولماقتا (Radio Free Asia)
ئۇيغۇر دىيارىدىكى رامىزانلىق چەكلىمىلەر دۇنيا ئاخبارات ساھەسىنىڭ دىققىتىنى تارتتى (Radio Free Asia)
洪聖斐:不准餐館休息 新疆當局耍陰招破壞齋戒月(新頭殻)
洪聖斐:新疆醫大傳請吃西瓜 測試學生是否封齋(新頭殻)

中國當局嚴格禁止穆斯林背景的官員、學生、公務人員參與齋戒月的封齋,這起請吃西瓜事件,美國之音記者打電話至新疆醫科大學求證未獲證實,包括保衛處及宣傳部都無人回應。
  但新疆醫科大學網站在官方網站上貼出校方為臨床畢業生舉辦畢業餐會,時間就在6月24日穆斯林的齋戒月期間,桌上杯盤狼籍。

洪聖斐:就是要打壓你的信仰 中國在齋戒月推啤酒節(新頭殻)

全球穆斯林世界上週四(18日)開始進入齋戒月。根據可蘭經,穆斯林不得飲酒。然而中國當局卻在這個節骨眼於新疆南部推啤酒大賽。……上個月,南疆的于田縣當局公布了1份告示,要求所有的餐廳與超市將5種品牌的菸酒陳列於顯眼的位置出售,違者將被迫關門,並受到法律訴究。

Nectar Gan: DNA samples required for travel papers as border area in China’s Xinjiang tightens immigration procedures for Ramadan (South China Morning Post)

People living in a border prefecture in Xinjiang must now give DNA samples when applying for travel documents.
The regulations were put in force before the beginning of the Muslim holy month of Ramadan, which started on Monday and was marked by the government’s customary ban on fasting by civil servants, students and children.
Residents in the Yili Kazakh Autonomous Prefecture who wanted to apply for any type of immigration documents had to go to the police station nearest their registered homes to have their DNA samples, fingerprints, voiceprints and a three-dimensional image collected, the prefectural Communist Party committee newspaper Yili Daily said.

Ilⱨam Tohti | Anschlag in Yəkən
Dez 3rd, 2014 by Gao

AP: Chinese court rejects Ilham Tohti appeal (Guardian)

A Chinese court has upheld the separatism conviction and life sentence for a noted scholar from China’s Muslim Uighur minority who frequently criticised the government while advocating ethnic pride and greater economic opportunity…
The Xinjiang high court on rejected the scholar’s appeal against the conviction, and the verdict was delivered on Friday at a hearing held inside the Urumqi detention centre, in violation of normal judicial procedure, his two lawyers said. The hearing was set at short notice on a date in which both lawyers were unable to attend, Liu Xiayuan and Li Fangping said.

AP: Xinjiang attack leaves at least 15 dead (Guardian)

An attack in China’s western region of Xinjiang left 15 people dead and 14 injured.
The official Xinhua news agency said the attack took place on Friday on a “food street” in Shache county, where state media said a series of attacks in July left 96 people dead, including 59 assailants.

Chris Buckley: Attack in Western China Leaves at Least 15 People Dead (New York Times)

Last month, a Chinese court sentenced 12 people to death after finding them guilty of “terrorist attacks” in Shache in July that killed 37 people. During the mayhem, 59 other people, later described by the authorities as terrorists, were shot dead by the police. But Uighur exile groups have described the episode as a massacre and said that those killed included demonstrators protesting against tightened restrictions on their Islamic religious practices.

Andrew Jacobs: Court Sentences 12 to Die for Xinjiang Mayhem (New York Times)
【真理部】香港占中,台湾选举和新疆莎车县暴力事件 (China Digital Times)

新疆莎车县最新(十一月28日)的暴恐事件不转载,不报道。

Matthew Miller, Michael Urquhart: China’s Xinjiang passes rules, plans fines to curb unrest – Xinhua (Reuters)

China’s Xinjiang region has banned the practise of religion in government buildings and will fine those who use the Internet to ‚undermine national unity‘, in a package of regulations aimed at combating separatism in the north-western province…
People will not be allowed to practice religion in government offices, public schools, businesses or institutions. Religious activities will have to take place in registered venues, the report said.
They also are prohibited from wearing or forcing others to wear clothes or logos associated with religious extremism, although the types of clothes and logos aren’t specified, the newspaper said.

新疆暴力不断 莎车再次发生“暴恐事件” (Deutsche Welle)
يەركەندە پىچاقلىق ھۇجۇم قىلىش ۋەقەسى يۈز بېرىپ، 11 ھۇجۇمچىنى ئۆز ئىچىگە ئالغان 15 ئادەم قازا قىلغان (Radio Free Asia)
يەكەن ۋەقەسىنىڭ بىر قىسىم سىرلىرى ئېچىلدى (Radio Free Asia)

Prozess gegen Ilⱨam Tohti
Sep 18th, 2014 by Gao

Jonathan Kaiman: China begins trial of Ilham Tohti (Guardian)

Chinese authorities began trying the Uighur academic Ilham Tohti on charges of “separatism” on Wednesday morning, in what human rights groups have called a “travesty of justice” that underscores the government’s unwillingness to field even moderate criticisms of its ethnic policies.
Tohti, 44, is being tried at the Urumqi intermediate court in Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region, more than 1,800 miles (3,000km) west of his home in Beijing. He will almost certainly be convicted; possible sentences range from 10 years to life in prison. He firmly denies the charge.

Uigurischer Regimekritiker vor chinesischem Gericht (Deutsche Welle)
Johnny Erling: Xinjiang will Uigurenanwalt Tohti zum Terroristen stempeln (Standard)
Johhny Erling: China statuiert Exempel an Bürgerrechtler (Welt)
Edward Wong: Uighur Scholar Ilham Tohti Goes on Trial in China on Separatist Charges (New York Times)

Mr. Tohti had been harshly treated throughout the detention, his lawyers say. “He was never allowed to see his family anytime during the eight months of detention,” Mr. Li said. “He was not allowed to meet with lawyers for the first five months.”
Seven students of Mr. Tohti have also been detained, and some have been formally arrested and charged, the parents of one student said in an interview near the courthouse here. The parents said the police in Urumqi had sent them a notice saying their son was being charged with harming the security of the state. They have been unable to contact him since his arrest in Beijing on Jan. 15, they said.

Separatism trial of Uighur professor in China enters second day (AFP/Yahoo)

Nine diplomats from countries including Germany, Britain and Canada travelled to Urumqi to observe the trial but were barred from entering the courtroom.

ئىلھام توختى سوتتا خىتاي تەپتىش ئەمەلدارىنىڭ بارلىق ئەيىبلەشلىرىنى رەت قىلدى (Radio Free Asia)

ئىلھام توختىنىڭ چارشەنبە كۈنى باشلانغان ئۈرۈمچى شەھەرلىك ئوتتۇرا سوت مەھكىمىسىدىكى سوتىنىڭ تۇنجى كۈنى، تەپتىش ئەمەلدارى ئۆزىنىڭ ئەيىبنامىسىنى ئوقۇپ ئۆتۈپ، ئىلھامنى «دۆلەتنى پارچىلاشقا»، «شىنجاڭنى مۇستەقىل قىلىشقا» ئۇرۇنۇش بىلەن ئەيىبلىگەن ۋە بۇ قارىشىنى ئىلگىرى سۈرىدىغان «پاكىتلار» نى ئوتتۇرىغا قويغان. تەپتىش ئەمەلدارى ئەيىبنامىسىدە، ئىلھام توختىنىڭ بۇرۇنقى ئوقۇغۇچىلىرىنىڭ «گۇۋاھلىق» سۆزلىرىنى پاكىت قىلىپ كۆرسىتىپ، بۇنى ئىلھامنىڭ بۆلگۈنچىلىك بىلەن شۇغۇللانغانلىقىنىڭ ئىسپاتى قىلىپ ئوتتۇرىغا قويغان. لېكىن ئىلھام توختىنىڭ ئادۋوكاتى لى فاڭپىڭ ئۇنىڭ ئۆزىگە قارىتىلغان بارلىق ئەيىبلەشنى رەت قىلىدىغانلىقىنى بىلدۈردى.

Timeline of Ilham Tohti’s Case (Human Rights Watch)

Thomas Latschan: Ilham Tohti – der leise Kritiker (Deutsche Welle)

An der Minzu-Universität in Peking untersuchte Tohti unter anderem über mehrere Jahre die soziale Lage der Uiguren in seiner Heimatprovinz Xinjiang. Dabei kam er zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Uiguren in Xinjiang keineswegs den Han-Chinesen gleichgestellt sind. Im Gegenteil: Für Uiguren gebe es weniger Arbeitsplätze, sie würden für die gleiche Arbeit schlechter bezahlt und von den chinesischen Behörden systematisch benachteiligt.
Nach den Unruhen von 2009 wurden die Sicherheitsmaßnahmen in der Provinz Xinjiang massiv verschärft
Wiederholt kritisierte Tohti die Politik der Zentralregierung gegenüber den Uiguren. Im Gegensatz zu anderen uigurischen Regimekritikern – wie der mittlerweile in den USA lebenden Rebiyah Kadeer – gilt er als gemäßigter Regimekritiker, der immer für eine bessere Verständigung zwischen Uiguren und Han-Chinesen geworben hat.

Celia Hatton: Is Ilham Tohti friend or foe of China? (BBC)

So, is Ilham Tohti really a moderate? It depends who you ask.
China’s mission to the EU appears not to think so.
The mission said in August that Mr Tohti had been „personally involved“ in orchestrating two episodes of violence in Xinjiang, diplomatic sources have told the BBC.

Uyghur Scholar Tohti ‚Humiliated‘ in Prison, Shackled Again (Radio Free Asia)
Reuters: Uighur academic held on separatism charges in China kept in shackles (Guardian)

Lawyer for economics professor Ilham Tohti says his client has also been denied warm clothes ahead of his trial this week…
„We intend to send somebody to the trial,“ the EU ambassador to China, Hans Dietmar Schweisgut, told reporters when asked if the EU would dispatch a diplomat to Urumqi even if China did not respond to its request to allow an observer in court.

ئىلھام توختىنىڭ ئايالى گۈزەلنۇر ۋە قېرىنداشلىرى سوتقا قاتنىشىش ئۈچۈن ئۈرۈمچىگە يېتىپ كەلدى (Radio Free Asia)
ئىلھام توختى سوتلانغان كۈنى ئامېرىكا ئەلچىسى ئۈرۈمچىگە كەلگەن (Radio Free Asia)
خەلقئارا جەمئىيەت ۋە قانۇنچىلار ئىلھام توختىنىڭ سوتىغا يېقىندىن كۆڭۈل بۆلمەكتە (Radio Free Asia)

Anschlag auf Markt in Ürümqi
Mai 26th, 2014 by Gao

Johnny Erling: Nordwestchina: Mehr als 30 Tote nach Anschlag (Standard)

Mikroblogs verbreiteten die ersten Fotos von einem der opferreichsten und brutalsten Terroranschläge in China seit Jahren. Die Attacke auf einen Gemüsemarkt von Urumqi (Ürümqi ئۈرۈمچى) am Donnerstagfrüh (sic) forderte mindestens 31 Tote und 94 Verletzte. Die Aufnahmen zeigten meterhohe Flammen; eintreffende Feuerwehrwagen und Polizeieinheiten riegelten den Tatort ab.

John Sudworth: China Urumqi attackers ‚blew themselves up‘ (BBC)
APA: 200 Festnahmen in Uiguren-Region Xinjiang (Standard)
Michael Clarke: Why is Xinjiang violence escalating? (BBC)

The pattern of the recent attacks does suggest an escalation or even radicalisation of Uighur opposition to Chinese rule. In contrast to past episodes of low-level violence in Xinjiang, which have been characterised by low technology and opportunistic attacks on representatives of the state (e.g. police, public security personnel or government officials), the current spate of violence through its targeting of public spaces is clearly designed to be indiscriminate and mass impact in nature…
Especially since the early 1990s, Beijing has instituted a massive, state-led modernisation project, funnelling billions of dollars into construction and infrastructure linking the region’s economy with the rest of the country and neighbouring Central Asia on the assumption that the delivery of economic growth will dampen Uighur discontent.
Yet on the contrary state-led modernisation has exacerbated Uighur disaffection by encouraging further Han Chinese settlement of Xinjiang and growing inter-ethnic and urban-rural economic inequalities.

Michael Clarke: China’s ‘War on Terror’ in Xinjiang: Human Security and the Causes of Violent Uighur Separatism (PDF; Griffith Asia Institute, 2007)
Shen Jie: 23 terror, religious extremism groups busted in Xinjiang (CCTV)
Eset Sulaiman, Eset Sulaiman, Parameswaran Ponnudurai: Xinjiang Police Open Fire at Protest Against Clampdown on Islamic Dress (Radio Free Asia)
Shohret Hoshur, Richard Finney: Over 100 Detained After Xinjiang Police Open Fire on Protesters (Radio Free Asia)
Mamatjan Juma, Joshua Lipes: Militant Islamist Group Says Deadly Xinjiang Bomb Attack ‘Good News’ / ت ئى پ ئۈرۈمچى ۋوگزال ھۇجۇمىنى قوللاپ، خىتاي ھۆكۈمىتى ۋە خەلقنى ئاگاھلاندۇردى (Radio Free Asia)

Anschlag in Ürümqi
Mai 6th, 2014 by Gao

Li Jing, Adrian Wan: Security tightened after three killed in bomb, knife attack at Urumqi train station (South China Morning Post)
Einzelheiten zur Explosion auf dem Bahnhof in Ürümqi (China.org.cn)

Die Explosion auf dem Südbahnhof in Ürümqi im nordwestchinesischen Uigurischen Autonomen Gebiet Xinjiang war nach Angaben der Polizei ein Terroranschlag.
Zudem konnten weitere Details ermittelt werden. So teilte die Polizei mit, bei einem der Attentäter habe es sich um Sedierding Shawuti [Sədirdin Xawut سەدىردىن ساۋۇت ?] aus dem Kreis Shayar [Xayar شايار / Shāyǎ Xiàn 沙雅县] im Regierungsbezirks (sic) Aksu [Aⱪsu ئاقسۇ / Ākèsū 阿克苏] gehandelt. Gemeinsam mit einem Komplizen habe er am Mittwochabend Umstehende mit Messern attackiert und um 19:10 Uhr Ortszeit Sprengsätze zur Detonation gebracht. Bei der Explosion seien die beiden Attentäter und ein Unbeteiligter getötet worden. Weitere 79 Menschen wurden verletzt.

AP: China blames Urumqi blast on suicide bombers; Xi demands action (Japan Times)

Tensions between Chinese and ethnic Muslim Uighurs in Xinjiang have been simmering for years, particularly since riots in 2009 in Urumqi left nearly 200 people dead, according to official figures. …
Last October, three Uighurs rammed a vehicle into crowds in a suicide attack near the Forbidden City gate in the heart of Beijing and then crashed the car in a fiery suicide attack, killing themselves and two tourists. Police quickly cleaned up the area and released few details, and it was not clear whether the attackers used some kind of explosives.
In March, five knife-wielding men and women believed to be Uighurs slashed at crowds indiscriminately at a railway station in southwestern China, killing 29 people.

Tania Branigan: China’s Xi warns of ’strike-first‘ strategy after militants bomb capital of Xinjiang (Guardian)
Jun Yan, Thomas Latschan: Empörung in China nach Anschlag in Xinjiang (Deutsche Welle)
Michelle FlorCruz: Urumqi Explosion Raises Fears Of Greater Uyghur Muslim-Separatist Terrorism Threat In China (International Business Times)
Teddy Ng: Xinjiang police issue order to detain family members of Urumqi bomb suspect (South China Morning Post)
Eric Meyer: Beijing’s Plan To Accelerate Growth In Xinjiang: A Real ‚New Deal‘? / Time Is Running Out For Ethnic Peace And Reconciliation In Xinjiang (Forbes)
Shannon Tiezzi: Chinese Media and the Urumqi Bombing: Censorship in Action (Diplomat)

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