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Gesellschaftliche Bonität
Jun 28th, 2018 by Gao

Rogier Creemers: China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control (Social Science Research Network)

The Social Credit System (SCS) is perhaps the most prominent manifestation of the Chinese government’s intention to reinforce legal, regulatory and policy processes through the application of information technology. Yet its organizational specifics have not yet received academic scrutiny. This paper will identify the objectives, perspectives and mechanisms through which the Chinese government has sought to realise its vision of „social credit“. Reviewing the system’s historical evolution, institutional structure, central and local implementation, and relationship with the private sector, this paper concludes that it is perhaps more accurate to conceive of the SCS as an ecosystem of initiatives broadly sharing a similar underlying logic, than a fully unified and integrated machine for social control. It also finds that, intentions with regards to big data and artificial intelligence notwithstanding, the SCS remains a relatively crude tool. This may change in the future, and this paper suggests the dimensions to be studied in order to assess this evolution.

Jack Karsten, Darrell M. West: China’s social credit system spreads to more daily transactions (Brookings)

In May, enforcement of China’s social credit system spread to the travel industry, restricting millions of Chinese citizens with low social credit scores from purchasing plane and train tickets. China has stated that all 1.35 billion of its citizens will be subject to its social credit system by 2020, and travel restrictions for low-scoring citizens is only one of many to come. The system resembles an American credit score, but more than just low credit limits and high interest rates, a poor Chinese social credit score can lead to bans from travel, certain schools, luxury hotels, government positions, and even dating apps.

Samantha Hoffman: Social Credit. Technology-enhanced authoritarian control with global consequences (Australian Strategic Policy Institute)

China’s ‘social credit system’ (SCS)—the use of big-data collection and analysis to monitor, shape and rate behaviour via economic and social processes1—doesn’t stop at China’s borders. Social credit regulations are already being used to force businesses to change their language to accommodate the political demands of the Chinese Communist Party. Analysis of the system is often focused on a ‘credit record’ or a domestic ranking system for individuals; however, the system is much more complicated and expansive than that. It’s part of a complex system of control—being augmented with technology—that’s embedded in the People’s Republic of China’s strategy of social management and economic development. It will affect international businesses and overseas Chinese communities and has the potential to interfere directly in the sovereignty of other nations. Evidence of this reach was seen recently when the Chinese Civil Aviation Administration accused international airlines of ‘serious dishonesty’ for allegedly violating Chinese laws when they listed Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau on their international websites.

Kelsey Munro: China’s social credit system ‘could interfere in other nations’ sovereignty’ (Guardian)

[A] new report by US China scholar Samantha Hoffman for the ASPI International Cyber Policy Institute in Canberra claims the system’s impact beyond China’s borders has not been well understood, and is in fact already shaping the behaviour of foreign businesses in line with Chinese Communist party preferences…
Hoffman is a visiting academic fellow at the Mercator Institute for China Studies in Berlin. Her report, Social Credit: Technology-enhanced Authoritarian Control with Global Consequences, was published on Thursday by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a security-focused thinktank which has urged the Australian government take a harder line on Chinese government interference in its democracy.

Nathan Vanderklippe: Chinese blacklist an early glimpse of sweeping new social-credit control (Globe and Mail)

It’s fair to think of social credit as an updated version of the renshi dangan, the decades-old Communist Party system of maintaining detailed personal files on cadres, said Chen Tan, a scholar at Guangzhou University and an expert on the system.
Prone to abuse, the information in those secret files could easily end a person’s career.
But the social-credit system will not suffer such issues, since it will „also set standards for government,“ Prof. Chen said.

Jiang Zemin hatte schon auf dem XIV. Parteitag im Jahr 2002 von einem System der gesellschaftlichen Bonität bzw. der Vertrauenswürdigkeit gesprochen, und zwar im Zusammenhang mit der weiteren Stärkung von Marktmechanismen:
江泽民:在中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会上的报告(人民网)

健全现代市场体系,加强和完善宏观调控。在更大程度上发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,健全统一、开放、竞争、有序的现代市场体系。推进资本市场的改革开放和稳定发展。发展产权、土地、劳动力和技术等市场。创造各类市场主体平等使用生产要素的环境。深化流通体制改革,发展现代流通方式。整顿和规范市场经济秩序,健全现代市场经济的社会信用体系,打破行业垄断和地区封锁,促进商品和生产要素在全国市场自由流动。

Ein experimentelles Vorläufersystem im Kreis Suīníng 睢宁 (Xúzhōu, Jiāngsū; siehe 睢宁县大众信用管理试行办法) im Jahr 2010 wurde in chinesischen Medien zum Teil noch ausgerechnet mit den Ausweisen bzw. Passierscheinen verglichen, welche die japanischen Besatzer an »verlässliche« Chines_innen ausgegeben hatten (ryōminshō 良民証).

Überwachung
Mrz 19th, 2018 by Gao

国务院关于印发社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)的通知
State Council Notice concerning Issuance of the Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020)
(China Copyright and Media)

社会信用体系是社会主义市场经济体制和社会治理体制的重要组成部分。它以法律、法规、标准和契约为依据,以健全覆盖社会成员的信用记录和信用基础设施网络为基础,以信用信息合规应用和信用服务体系为支撑,以树立诚信文化理念、弘扬诚信传统美德为内在要求,以守信激励和失信约束为奖惩机制,目的是提高全社会的诚信意识和信用水平。 A social credit system is an important component part of the Socialist market economy system and the social governance system. It is founded on laws, regulations, standards and charters, it is based on a complete network covering the credit records of members of society and credit infrastructure, it is supported by the lawful application of credit information and a credit services system, its inherent requirements are establishing the idea of an sincerity culture, and carrying forward sincerity and traditional virtues, it uses encouragement to keep trust and constraints against breaking trust as incentive mechanisms, and its objective is raising the honest mentality and credit levels of the entire society.

Mareike Ohlberg, Shazeda Ahmed, Bertram Lang: Central planning, local experiments. The complex implementation of China’s Social Credit System (PDF; MERICS)

Even if the full vision of the system is not realized, the scope of this project is massive and will transform China’s legal, social, and economic environment significantly…
Several social credit pilot projects are already operational, testing new approaches of collecting data and using it to sanction undesirable behavior on a limited scale. These punishments offer unprecedented possibilities to surveil and steer the behavior of natural and legal persons and therefore would have far-reaching consequences if adopted nationwide.
National implementation is still at an early stage: many of the measures put in place are establishing foundations for sharing information between different departments of government…
The relationship between government and commercial actors will be a key factor to watch: Government agencies clearly depend on private companies’ technological know-how to roll out such a large-scale system. Conflicts and rivalry between bureaucratic and commercial players, however, could delay or even derail its implementation.

Mara Hvistendahl: Inside China’s Vast New Experiment in Social Ranking (Wired)

In 2015, when Lazarus Liu moved home to China after studying logistics in the United Kingdom for three years, he quickly noticed that something had changed: Everyone paid for everything with their phones. At McDonald’s, the convenience store, even at mom-and-pop restaurants, his friends in Shanghai used mobile payments. Cash, Liu could see, had been largely replaced by two smartphone apps: Alipay and WeChat Pay. One day, at a vegetable market, he watched a woman his mother’s age pull out her phone to pay for her groceries. He decided to sign up.
To get an Alipay ID, Liu had to enter his cell phone number and scan his national ID card. He did so reflexively. Alipay had built a reputation for reliability, and compared to going to a bank managed with slothlike indifference and zero attention to customer service, signing up for Alipay was almost fun. With just a few clicks he was in. Alipay’s slogan summed up the experience: “Trust makes it simple.”

Anna Mitchell, Larry Diamond: China’s Surveillance State Should Scare Everyone (Atlantic)

Imagine a society in which you are rated by the government on your trustworthiness. Your “citizen score” follows you wherever you go. A high score allows you access to faster internet service or a fast-tracked visa to Europe. If you make political posts online without a permit, or question or contradict the government’s official narrative on current events, however, your score decreases. To calculate the score, private companies working with your government constantly trawl through vast amounts of your social media and online shopping data…
The new social credit system under development will consolidate reams of records from private companies and government bureaucracies into a single “citizen score” for each Chinese citizen. In its comprehensive 2014 planning outline, the CCP explains a goal of “keep[ing] trust and constraints against breaking trust.” While the system is voluntary for now, it will be mandatory by 2020.

Adam Greenfield: China’s Dystopian Tech Could Be Contagious (Atlantic)

[T]he Chinese government has become convinced that a far greater degree of social control is both necessary and possible. It now has access to a set of tools for managing the complexity of contemporary life that it believes will deliver better, surer, and more reliable results than anything produced by the model of order from below.
Known by the anodyne name “social credit,” this system is designed to reach into every corner of existence both online and off. It monitors each individual’s consumer behavior, conduct on social networks, and real-world infractions like speeding tickets or quarrels with neighbors. Then it integrates them into a single, algorithmically determined “sincerity” score. Every Chinese citizen receives a literal, numeric index of their trustworthiness and virtue, and this index unlocks, well, everything. In principle, anyway, this one number will determine the opportunities citizens are offered, the freedoms they enjoy, and the privileges they are granted.
This end-to-end grid of social control is still in its prototype stages, but three things are already becoming clear: First, where it has actually been deployed, it has teeth. Second, it has profound implications for the texture of urban life. And finally, there’s nothing so distinctly Chinese about it that it couldn’t be rolled out anywhere else the right conditions obtain. The advent of social credit portends changes both dramatic and consequential for life in cities everywhere—including the one you might call home.

Rene Chun: China’s New Frontiers in Dystopian Tech (Atlantic)

Dystopia starts with 23.6 inches of toilet paper. That’s how much the dispensers at the entrance of the public restrooms at Beijing’s Temple of Heaven dole out in a program involving facial-recognition scanners—part of the president’s “Toilet Revolution,” which seeks to modernize public toilets. Want more? Forget it. If you go back to the scanner before nine minutes are up, it will recognize you and issue this terse refusal: “Please try again later.”
China is rife with face-scanning technology worthy of Black Mirror. Don’t even think about jaywalking in Jinan, the capital of Shandong province. Last year, traffic-management authorities there started using facial recognition to crack down. When a camera mounted above one of 50 of the city’s busiest intersections detects a jaywalker, it snaps several photos and records a video of the violation. The photos appear on an overhead screen so the offender can see that he or she has been busted, then are cross-checked with the images in a regional police database. Within 20 minutes, snippets of the perp’s ID number and home address are displayed on the crosswalk screen. The offender can choose among three options: a 20-yuan fine (about $3), a half-hour course in traffic rules, or 20 minutes spent assisting police in controlling traffic. Police have also been known to post names and photos of jaywalkers on social media.

Debatte über den Yue-Yuen-Streik
Apr 29th, 2014 by Gao

Michael bzw. Cathy hat diesen Artikel geschickt:
Ashok Kumar: 5 reasons the strike in China is terrifying! (to transnational capitalism) (Communists in situ, 25. April 2014)

1. It’s the largest strike in modern China…
2. Chinese state repression is tempered…
3. It’s too big to cut-and-run…
4. The price of consumer durables is rising…
5. It’s gone global…

Es gibt eine Debatte über Erfolg oder Misserfolg des Streikes bei Yue Yuen (Yùyuán 裕元). Daniel hat auf dieses Interview hingewiesen:
与裕元一位老工人的深度访谈 (公平社,27. April 2014)

小邱:这次罢工失败的原因是什么?这次罢工之后会不会裁一批工人?
裕友:主要原因是:1.政府强力打压,甚至警察封住厂门不让员工出来,到车间强迫工人复工。2.部分工人受前述情况影响,产生悲观、畏惧和失败情绪,觉得反正搞不赢了,捞了230元,见好就收,无奈复工。
裁人很难说。我们25日才正式复工,台湾佬就宣布以后控制加班,周末只有确实很急的工作才可以报加班。果然不出所料,台湾佬要秋后算帐了。控制加班明显是秋后算账。加班成了他们手里的一根骨头。
小邱:今天(26日)复工了,这次“12天的休假”结束了,大家是什么心情?复工后又有什么情况?经过大罢工后,工人有什么新的想法?
裕友:大家虽然复工了,但心里都憋着一股怨气。今天大家心里都特别难受,感到很屈辱。表面看来,罢工已平息,但矛盾仍然存在,问题没解决,员工怨气很大。尤其是对政府强势介入打压员工非常不满。所有人都感觉到愤怒,尤其是被强迫劳动!
听说老三厂25日有些人复工,下班后听说是有强迫复工的干部被打了,组长级别以上的干部下班都有警察护送。26日警察就到各厂找积极分子问话,据我所知,G3模具厂有个钳工就被问话了,并且在问话记录上按了手印,还要了他的QQ号。YY3模具厂有三个积极分子被叫到写字楼问话,被警告,鞋厂很多员工被叫到写字楼问话,被警告。(小邱:你不算积极分子吧?)很可惜,我还算不上。罢工期间我曾在网上指责警察强迫员工复工,不晓得会不会找我?
这次罢工只是在强势打压下被迫复工的,问题依然没得到解决。本来只是单纯的劳资纠纷,却由于政府的强势打压,导致更多人对政府和资方的不满。可说,这次罢工事件是三败俱伤,员工被打压,资方需付出几十亿的补偿和罚款/滞纳金,政府的威信下降。
小邱:但是你想过没有,这次罢工也使许多工人觉醒。之前那种对官方包括总工会、甚至对警察的幻想,现在都破灭了,这种觉悟会让下次斗争更有力量,至少思想上不再那么软弱。
裕友:是的。这次罢工的前期,员工还企望政府协调,当工会介入后镇压加剧,员工看清了政府的真正面目,他们就是资方的打手和走狗。
可以说,只是明火被扑灭了,仍有暗藏的火种,下次遇到诱因,可能会更加爆发!而且经过这次的洗礼,下次的罢工,肯定会更有组织性和战斗力!

Heiko hingegen hat diese Links geschickt:
Stephanie Won, Ben Livesey, John Lear: Yue Yuen Says 80% of Workers Return After Plant Strike (Bloomberg, 25. April 2014)
China Confirms Strike-Struck Shoemaker Yue Yuen Owes Social Benefits (Wall Street Journal, 24./27. April 2014)
Dongguan union releases response to Yue Yuen workers’ demands (China Labor Watch, 24. April 2014)

Rolf wies darauf hin, dass das Arbeitsministerium auf Seiten der Arbeiter interveniert hat:
Jill Geoghegan: Strike ends at Adidas and Nike supplier in China (Drapers, 29. April 2014)

Weitere Artikel:
Felix Lee: Streiks in chinesischer Turnschuhfabrik (Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 18. April 2014)
王传涛:“裕元鞋厂大罢工”是工人维权意识的苏醒 (人民日报海外版~劳工互助网, 19. April 2014)
Felix Lee: „Sie betrügen uns alle zusammen“ (Südwest Presse [sic], 23. April 2014)
Adidas shifts orders from striking Yue Yuen factory in Dongguan (Global Times, 24. April 2014)
广东省总工会主席黄业斌:裕元鞋厂“目前已有90%的员工复工” (劳工互助网, 24. April 2014)
Felix Lee: China hat ein riesiges Rentenproblem (Zeit, 25. April 2014)
Stefan Sauer: Grobes Foul von Adidas (Frankfurter Rundschau, 25. April 2014)
AFP: Huge China strike peters out as workers cite intimidation (Breitbart, 28. April 2014)
William Hurst: Chinese factory strike portends global workplace changes (AlJazeera, 28. April 2014)
Jonathan Sullivan, Samantha Hoffman: China can’t ignore workers‘ well-being if it wants to avert strikes (South China Morning Post, 28./29. April 2014)
Markus Ackeret: Streik-Ende unter dem Druck des Staates (Neue Zürcher Zeitung, 29. April 2014)
AFP: Huge China strike peters out as workers cite intimidation (NDTV, 28. April 2014)
Yue Yuen Workers Won’t Cry (China Labour Net, 28. April 2014)

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