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Nov 13th, 2017 by Gao

国务院关于印发社会信用体系建设规划纲要(2014—2020年)的通知(中华人民共和国中央政府)

社会信用体系是社会主义市场经济体制和社会治理体制的重要组成部分。它以法律、法规、标准和契约为依据,以健全覆盖社会成员的信用记录和信用基础设施网络为基础,以信用信息合规应用和信用服务体系为支撑,以树立诚信文化理念、弘扬诚信传统美德为内在要求,以守信激励和失信约束为奖惩机制,目的是提高全社会的诚信意识和信用水平。
  加快社会信用体系建设是全面落实科学发展观、构建社会主义和谐社会的重要基础,是完善社会主义市场经济体制、加强和创新社会治理的重要手段,对增强社会成员诚信意识,营造优良信用环境,提升国家整体竞争力,促进社会发展与文明进步具有重要意义。
  根据党的十八大提出的“加强政务诚信、商务诚信、社会诚信和司法公信建设”,党的十八届三中全会提出的“建立健全社会征信体系,褒扬诚信,惩戒失信”,《中共中央 国务院关于加强和创新社会管理的意见》提出的“建立健全社会诚信制度”,以及《中华人民共和国国民经济和社会发展第十二个五年规划纲要》(以下简称“十二五”规划纲要)提出的“加快社会信用体系建设”的总体要求,制定本规划纲要。规划期为2014—2020年。

Übersetzung ins Englische:
Planning Outline for the Construction of a Social Credit System (2014-2020) (China Copyright and Media)
国务院关于促进市场公平竞争维护市场正常秩序的若干意见(中华人民共和国中央政府)

以邓小平理论、“三个代表”重要思想、科学发展观为指导,深入学习领会党的十八大、十八届二中、三中全会精神,贯彻落实党中央和国务院的各项决策部署,围绕使市场在资源配置中起决定性作用和更好发挥政府作用,着力解决市场体系不完善、政府干预过多和监管不到位问题,坚持放管并重,实行宽进严管,激发市场主体活力,平等保护各类市场主体合法权益,维护公平竞争的市场秩序,促进经济社会持续健康发展。……
充分发挥市场在资源配置中的决定性作用,把该放的权力放开放到位,降低准入门槛,促进就业创业。法不禁止的,市场主体即可为;法未授权的,政府部门不能为。……
充分发挥法律法规的规范作用、行业组织的自律作用、舆论和社会公众的监督作用,实现社会共同治理,推动市场主体自我约束、诚信经营。……
立足于促进企业自主经营、公平竞争,消费者自由选择、自主消费,商品和要素自由流动、平等交换,建设统一开放、竞争有序、诚信守法、监管有力的现代市场体系,加快形成权责明确、公平公正、透明高效、法治保障的市场监管格局……

Übersetzung ins Englische:
Opinions of the State Council on Promoting Fair Market Competition and Maintaining the Normal Market Order (北大法律英文网)
Rachel Botsman: Big data meets Big Brother as China moves to rate its citizens (Wired)

The Chinese government plans to launch its Social Credit System in 2020. The aim? To judge the trustworthiness – or otherwise – of its 1.3 billion residents.
Imagine a world where many of your daily activities were constantly monitored and evaluated: what you buy at the shops and online; where you are at any given time; who your friends are and how you interact with them; how many hours you spend watching content or playing video games; and what bills and taxes you pay (or not). It’s not hard to picture, because most of that already happens, thanks to all those data-collecting behemoths like Google, Facebook and Instagram or health-tracking apps such as Fitbit. But now imagine a system where all these behaviours are rated as either positive or negative and distilled into a single number, according to rules set by the government. That would create your Citizen Score and it would tell everyone whether or not you were trustworthy. Plus, your rating would be publicly ranked against that of the entire population and used to determine your eligibility for a mortgage or a job, where your children can go to school – or even just your chances of getting a date.

Mirjam Meissner: China’s Social Credit System (PDF; Mercator Institute for China Studies)

Under the catchphrase “Social Credit System,” China is currently implementing a new and highly innovative approach to monitoring, rating, and regulating the behavior of market participants. The Social Credit System will have significant impact on the behavior of individuals, companies, and other institutions, such as NGOs. Despite much international attention on the impact of the system for individuals, the core motivation behind the Social Credit System is to more effectively steer the behavior of market participants…
The ultimate goal is to build self-enforcing mechanisms for business regulation: Based on advanced big data technologies, the system is designed to constantly monitor and evaluate companies’ economic as well as non-economic behavior…
The system will create strong incentives for companies to make their business decisions and operations comply not just with laws and regulations but also with the industrial and technological policy targets laid down by the Chinese government…
At the heart of the Social Credit System lies massive data collection on company activities by government agencies and authorized rating entities.

Celia Hatton: China ’social credit‘: Beijing sets up huge system (BBC)

In most countries, the existence of a credit system isn’t controversial. Past financial information is used to predict whether individuals will pay their mortgages or credit card bill in the future.
But China is taking the whole concept a few steps further. The Chinese government is building an omnipotent „social credit“ system that is meant to rate each citizen’s trustworthiness.

Sara Hsu: China’s New Social Credit System (Diplomat)

Despite hyped concerns in the foreign press, little is actually known about China’s plans to rate citizens and firms.

Shazeda Ahmed: Cashless Society, Cached Data: Security Considerations for a Chinese Social Credit System (Citizen Lab)

In an irony that has plagued many a surveillance apparatus, the spread of a social credit system and its associated sensors, QR codes, and other trace-reading tools can create new security concerns separate from those it allegedly aims to reduce through near-ubiquitous monitoring of behavior. These new threats involve the ways in which credit score data can be forged, and the ends toward which fake credit scores may be used. The expedited security check at the Beijing airport for Sesame Credit users with high enough scores who are traveling on domestic flights provides one example of a situation where a falsified high score could enable someone to bypass more rigorous security checks, which can be a threat to national security from a skilled and determined enough actor. The more widely used the social credit system becomes and the greater the range of rewards it may provide high scorers, the more incentives for figuring out how to hack it will proliferate.

Das Ganze erinnert an Black Mirror, 1. Folge, 3. Staffel: Nosedive (dt.: Abgestürzt) vom Oktober 2016.

Inflation | Protest in Taibei | Lebensstandard | Krim | Südchinesisches Meer | Huawei
Mrz 24th, 2014 by Gao

China’s economy: An alternative view (Economist)

Is China’s economy underheating? Not long ago, many people would have scoffed at the suggestion. The country is known for searing property prices, hot-money inflows and the steam escaping from its financial furnaces. The stock of outstanding credit, broadly defined, climbed to over 180% of GDP at the end of 2013, according to the central bank, and over 215%, according to an even broader measure by Fitch, a ratings agency.
But house prices are slowing, exports are weak and shadow banking is losing ground to traditional lending. Forecasters expected industrial output to grow by 9.5% in the first two months of 2014, compared with a year earlier; it grew by only 8.6% … Emi Nakamura, Jón Steinsson and Miao Liu of Columbia University … believe true inflation may have been as high as 20% in 2007 and 18% in 2008, compared with official figures of 4.8% and 5.9%.

Taiwan youth protests against China trade deal (Guardian)

Thousands of young Taiwanese waved banners and shouted slogans to mark the third day of their occupation of parliament to protest against a trade pact with China which they fear could further swell Beijing’s economic influence.
Parliamentary approval of the pact would pave the way for greater economic integration between the two former geopolitical foes by opening 80 of China’s service sectors to Taiwan and 64 Taiwanese sectors to China.

AP: Dozens arrested as Taiwan riot police clear protesters from cabinet offices (Guardian)

Authorities said they arrested 58 protesters and that 137 were injured, including 24 hospitalised. The crackdown came five days after mainly student demonstrators occupied the nearby legislature to protest the ruling party’s decision to renege on a promised line-by-line review of the trade agreement.

Hsiao-Hung Pai: Students occupy Taiwan’s parliament against trade deal (revolutionary socialism in the 21st century)
J. Michael Cole: Taiwanese Occupy Legislature Over China Pact (Diplomat)
Ray Sanchez, Zoe Li: Taiwan Legislature occupiers‘ ultimatum passes without response from government (CNN)
J. Michael Cole: Riot Police Crack Down on Taiwanese Protesters (Diplomat)

The standoff over a controversial trade agreement between Taiwan and China that began on March 19 with the occupation of the legislature took a turn for the worse on March 23 after riot police turned on protesters who had occupied the nearby Executive Yuan, injuring several dozens.
Sunday night’s dramatic events occurred a day after an unsuccessful meeting between Premier Jiang Yi-huah and Lin Fei-fan, one of the leaders of the “sunflower revolution,” and following an international press conference by President Ma Ying-jeou, who refused to meet the group’s demands. Since March 19, tens of thousands of Taiwanese have protested outside the legislature, while about 300 — mostly students — remain shacked up inside the building.
The alliance against the services trade pact, an amalgam of student organizations, lawyers, and civic organizations, had initially demanded that the Cross-Strait Services Trade Agreement (CSSTA), signed in China in June 2013, be reviewed clause-by-clause by the legislature, that a mechanism be set to monitor future agreements with China, and that President Ma apologize for the crisis. It later changed its demands by requesting that the pact be annulled altogether and calling for a national conference on the matter.

委员:9成农民生活和40年前一样 改革成果哪去了(北青网)

全国政协委员舒红兵在政协无党派界别小组会上,称许多农村人跟40年前一样,9成农民因为医疗负担重死在家中,孩子们的上学条件没有改善,反而更加困难。类似于雾霾等两会话题,对底层百姓而言“太奢侈”。

CPPCC Member: The Lives of 90% of Peasants [Rural Residents] Are the Same as 40 Years Ago, Where Are The Fruits of the Reform? (ChinaSmack)

National Chinese People’s Political Consultative Conference (CPPCC) member Shu Hongbing said during a CPPCC group meeting of the independent/non-party affiliated that many peasants [rural residents] are as they were 40 years ago, with 90% of peasants dying in their homes because of heavy medical expenses, their children’s access to education have not improved but have instead become even more difficult. Similar to the topic of smog [air pollution] during the Two Meetings, it is “too luxurious/extravagant” [irrelevant, only of significance to the upper classes] for the ordinary common people at the lowest levels of society.

Foreign Ministry Spokesperson Qin Gang’s Remarks on the Current Situation in Ukraine (Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the People’s Republic of China)

We respect the independence, sovereignty and territorial integrity of Ukraine.

王义桅:乌克兰危机的四点启示(《人民日报海外版》)

乌克兰政局并没有随着苏联解体、乌克兰独立并交出世界第三大核武库而消停,恰恰相反,这些年来,乌克兰成为冷战最后的战场,甚至可能引发第二次冷战。乌克兰又倒向了西方,克里米亚地区则公投要重回俄罗斯。俄罗斯和西方地缘政治拉锯战进入最后阶段,带给我们诸多启示。

AFP: Russia isolated as China abstains in UN Security Council vote on Crimea (South China Morning Post)

Russia vetoed a Western-backed resolution condemning today’s referendum in Crimea at an emergency UN Security Council meeting yesterday but China abstained, isolating Moscow further on the Ukraine crisis.

Russia vetoes US-sponsored UN resolution declaring Crimea vote invalid (RT)
Wang Yiwei: Four lessons to be learned from the Ukraine crisis (People’s Daily)

Ukraine has become the final battlefield in the „cold war“, and it is becoming a possibility that the crisis will trigger a second „cold war“. The Crimean parliament’s declaration of independence from Ukraine ahead of the March 16 referendum indicates that Crimea may go ahead and join Russia.

Peter Lee: From Kiev to Beijing … and Taipei (Asia Times)

A certain amount of attention, and rightly so, has been paid to the discomfiture of the People’s Republic of China (PRC) with Crimea unilaterally declaring independence from Ukraine. The PRC abstained on the UN Security Council condemnation of the vote, instead of supporting Russia with a „nay“. The PRC possesses or covets several significant territories whose inhabitants, if given the opportunity, might eagerly defy the One China policy to announce, organize, and pass a referendum of independence: Tibet, Xinjiang, Hong Kong, Inner Mongolia, Macau, and Taiwan.

Eric Li: Nothing awkward about China’s position with regard to Ukraine (South China Morning Post)

Donald K. Emmerson: Eyes on Crimea, China makes its move (Asia Times)

At Second Thomas Shoal, a handful of Philippine marines have long been stationed and re-provisioned on the rusting deck of the BRP Sierra Madre, a Philippine naval ship half-sunk into the reef in 1999. Ever since, the vessel and the marines have served to embody Manila’s claim of sovereignty over the shoal. More recently, China has tried to raise the salience of its own claim by intensively patrolling the area.
On March 9, 2014, China made a move to end the status quo at the shoal. For the first time in 15 years, Beijing stopped Manila from delivering supplies to the Sierra Madre.

Zachary Keck: Second Thomas Shoal Tensions Intensify (Diplomat)

The U.S. has criticized China for provoking the Philippines in the Second Thomas Shoal even as Manila air-lifted supplies to its marines stationed on the disputed reef.

Jeff Himmelman: A Game of Shark and Minnow (New York Times)

David E. Sanger, Nicole Perlroth: N.S.A. Breached Chinese Servers Seen as Security Threat (New York Times)

American officials have long considered Huawei, the Chinese telecommunications giant, a security threat, blocking it from business deals in the United States for fear that the company would create “back doors” in its equipment that could allow the Chinese military or Beijing-backed hackers to steal corporate and government secrets.
But even as the United States made a public case about the dangers of buying from Huawei, classified documents show that the National Security Agency was creating its own back doors — directly into Huawei’s networks.

Snowden-Enthüllung: NSA spionierte Chinas Staatsführung und Konzerne aus (Spiegel)

Die amerikanische Regierung hat eine digitale Großoffensive gegen China gestartet und dabei auch die chinesische Staatsführung und den Huawei-Konzern ins Visier genommen. Das geht aus Unterlagen des ehemaligen NSA-Mitarbeiters Edward Snowden hervor, die der SPIEGEL einsehen konnte. Zu den Zielen, die der amerikanische Geheimdienst attackierte, zählen der ehemalige Staatspräsident Hu Jintao, das chinesische Handelsministerium, das Außenministerium, Banken sowie Telekommunikationsunternehmen.

Bernhard Zand: Chinesischer Tech-Konzern Huawei verurteilt NSA-Spionage (Spiegel)
Matthias Kremp: Warum die USA Chinas Netzwerk-Giganten ausspähte (Spiegel)

„Westliche Werte“ | Auslandsstudium
Sep 9th, 2013 by Gao

Chris Buckley: China Takes Aim at Western Ideas (New York Times)

Communist Party cadres have filled meeting halls around China to hear a somber, secretive warning issued by senior leaders. Power could escape their grip, they have been told, unless the party eradicates seven subversive currents coursing through Chinese society.
These seven perils were enumerated in a memo, referred to as Document No. 9, that bears the unmistakable imprimatur of Xi Jinping, China’s new top leader. The first was “Western constitutional democracy”; others included promoting “universal values” of human rights, Western-inspired notions of media independence and civic participation, ardently pro-market “neo-liberalism,” and “nihilist” criticisms of the party’s traumatic past.

Roland Soong (宋春舫) kündigt an, wieder auf Englisch zu schreiben, und stellt die Artikel vor, die er für die 《南方都市报》 geschrieben hat:
Roland Soong: My long absence (EastWestNorthSouth)

Ein längerer, recht negativer Artikel über Mo Yan und seine Werke:
Nikil Saval: White Happy Doves (London Review of Books)

Chinesische Studierende in den USA (speziell an der Purdue-Universität im Bundesstaat Indiana):
Paul Stephens: International Students: Separate but Profitable (Washington Monthly)

China ist nicht Indien, doch der Artikel ist durchaus relevant für weite Teile Asiens:
Jessica Namakkal: Study Abroad as Neo-Colonial Tourism (CounterPunch)

Und dieser Artikel hat gar keinen direkten Bezug zu China:
Bruce Schneider: NSA surveillance: A guide to staying secure (Guardian)

Edward Snowden
Jun 11th, 2013 by Gao

Daniel Ellsberg: Edward Snowden: saving us from the United Stasi of America (Guardian)

In my estimation, there has not been in American history a more important leak than Edward Snowden’s release of NSA material – and that definitely includes the Pentagon Papers 40 years ago. Snowden’s whistleblowing gives us the possibility to roll back a key part of what has amounted to an „executive coup“ against the US constitution. Since 9/11, there has been, at first secretly but increasingly openly, a revocation of the bill of rights for which this country fought over 200 years ago. In particular, the fourth and fifth amendments of the US constitution, which safeguard citizens from unwarranted intrusion by the government into their private lives, have been virtually suspended.

Mark Siemons: Die Tragik des Whistleblowers (FAZ)

Die Nachricht, dass der Whistleblower Edward Snowden, der das amerikanische Spitzelprogamm Prism aufdeckte, ausgerechnet in Hongkong Zuflucht sucht, hat China in größte Verwirrung gestürzt. „Was ist los mit der Welt?“, fasst ein Blogger die Stimmung zusammen: „Es ist auf einmal alles verkehrt herum“. … Tatsächlich hat Hongkong ein Auslieferungsabkommen mit den Vereinigten Staaten, doch wenn Snowden Asyl sucht und geltend machen kann, dass ihn in Amerika eine „grausame, unmenschliche oder herabwürdigende Behandlung oder Bestrafung“ erwartet, kann die Stadt seine Auslieferung ablehnen.

Spencer Ackerman: Snowden leak shines light on US intelligence agencies‘ use of contractors (Guardian)
Glenn Greenwald, Ewen MacAskill, Laura Poitras: Edward Snowden: the whistleblower behind the NSA surveillance revelations (Guardian)

Snowden will go down in history as one of America’s most consequential whistleblowers, alongside Daniel Ellsberg and Bradley Manning. He is responsible for handing over material from one of the world’s most secretive organisations – the NSA. … On May 20, he boarded a flight to Hong Kong, where he has remained ever since. He chose the city because „they have a spirited commitment to free speech and the right of political dissent“, and because he believed that it was one of the few places in the world that both could and would resist the dictates of the US government.

Peter Lee: Edward Snowden and China (CounterPunch)
Peter Lee: Snowden and the three wise NSA whistleblowers (Asia Times)

Whistleblowing is a risky business. I expect that, as they planned their course of action over the four months, Edward Snowden and his main media minder, Glenn Greenwald, paid very close attention to what happened to three past whistleblowers who crossed the NSA. And looking at these three men gives an idea of the interests, principles and powers that are being contested beneath the superficially simple tale of a young analyst who fled to Hong Kong to tell the world about runaway US government surveillance.

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