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Ungleichheit, Armut und Armutsbekämpfung
Jul 6th, 2018 by Gao

Facundo Alvaredo, Lucas Chancel, Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman: Global Inequality Dynamics: New Findings from WID.world (American Economic Review, Mai 2017)

Rising inequality has attracted considerable interest in recent years, as shown by the attention received by an academic book published by one of us (Piketty 2014). Yet we still face important limitations in our ability to measure the changing distribution of income and wealth, within and between countries and at the world level. In this paper, we present new findings about global inequality dynamics from the World Wealth and Income Database (WID.world). We start with a brief history of the WID.world project. We then present selected findings on income inequality, private versus public wealth-to-income ratios, and wealth inequality, with emphasis on the contrast between the trends in the United States, China, France, and the United Kingdom…

Rob Schmitz: Xi Jinping’s War On Poverty Moves Millions Of Chinese Off The Farm (NPR, 19. Oktober 2017)

China’s government hopes city life will push tens of millions into the workforce on their way to joining the world’s largest middle class. In the first five years of Xi’s presidency, more than 60 million Chinese have risen above the poverty line; Xi wants to move 70 million more Chinese above that line within the next three years, a goal China’s government is more tightly focused on than ever. …
[O]fficials in Guizhou … plan to move more than 750,000 people off farms by the end of the year from nearly 3,600 villages.

(Es gibt einen Eugene K. Chow, der Redenschreiber für den New Yorker Bürgermeister Bill de Blasio war.)
Eugene K. Chow: China’s War on Poverty Could Hurt the Poor Most (Foreign Policy, 8. Jänner 2018)

The government is pushing people out of rural squalor — and into urban dependence.

Spencer Sheehan: China’s Hukou Reforms and the Urbanization Challenge (The Diplomat, 22. Feber 2018)

China is speeding up hukou reform, but that won’t be enough to solve the migrant worker problem.
China’s government has announced a lofty goal of expanding urban hukou or residency permits to 100 million migrant workers by 2020 as part of its plan to rebalance its economy. However, the government needs to deliver a whole range of supporting policies to achieve this goal and it may not have the financing to provide them.

Philip Alston: Report of the [UN] Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to China (PDF; 28. März 2017)

The achievements that China has made in alleviating poverty have been extraordinary. Its leadership has made a strong and genuine commitment to building a “moderately prosperous society” free of extreme poverty, thus showing political will that is impressive and all too uncommon in today’s world…
While China has done a huge amount to promote economic and social wellbeing, this has not yet been translated into an approach based on treating economic and social rights as human rights.

Javier C. Hernández: Xi Jinping Vows No Poverty in China by 2020. That Could Be Hard. (New York Times, 31. Oktober 2017)

Nearly seven decades after the Chinese Communist Party rose to power on a promise of prosperity for all, President Xi Jinping has vowed to fulfill the Communists’ original intent, staking his legacy on an ambitious plan to complete the eradication of rural poverty by 2020…
Even as Chinese cities have turned into playgrounds for the nouveau riche and the swelling ranks of the middle class, nearly 500 million people, or about 40 percent of China’s population, live on less than $5.50 per day, according to the World Bank.
“The whole idea of socialism was that all Chinese would have a reasonable living standard,” said Kerry Brown, a China scholar at King’s College London. “The nagging concern is that the Communist Party has created billionaires and a strong middle class, and yet there are still a lot of poor people. That seems to be a massive contradiction.”

Ein wichtiger Diskussionsbeitrag in diesem Zusammenhang:
Felix Wemheuer: Auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus? Kritische Anmerkungen zu den Unterstützern der heutigen KP China in der westlichen Linken (Kommunistische Debatte)

Seit dem Ende der Kulturrevolution 1976 und dem Niedergang der westeuropäischen ML-Bewegung haben sich viele Linke lange nicht mehr für die Entwicklung in China interessiert. In den letzten 15 Jahren häufen sich allerdings linke Publikationen zum Charakter der Volksrepublik. Mittlerweile ist China eine politische und wirtschaftliche Großmacht. Während mit dem chinesischen „Wirtschaftswunder“ im Westen lange nur Sweatshops und Billigwaren verbunden wurden, investiert das chinesische Kapital heute auf allen Kontinenten. Selbst in Deutschland kauft es im großen Stil Unternehmen auf. Laut den Plänen der chinesischen Regierung soll die VR zum 100. Jahrestag ihrer Gründung, 2049, ein hochentwickeltes Industrieland sein. „Der Spiegel“ rief sogar die westliche Welt dazu auf, endlich aufzuwachen, da China schon jetzt die Nummer Eins sei. Die gegenwärtige Verschiebung der globalen Machtverhältnisse können auch Linke in Europa nicht ignorieren. Allerdings gehen die Einschätzungen zum Charakter der VR weit auseinander: Theodor Bergmann sieht das Land auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus (…). Der bekannte marxistische Geograph David Harvey hingegen reihte 2005 auf dem Titelbild seines Buches „Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus“ Deng Xiaoping in eine wenig schmeichelhafte Ahnengalerie zusammen mit Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher und dem chilenischen Diktator Augusto Pinochet ein.

Planwirtschaft?
Jun 23rd, 2015 by Gao

Ein neuerer Artikel von Heiko Khoo (s. u.) greift diese Debatte von Ende letzten Jahres auf:
Sebastian Heilmann, Oliver Melton: The Reinvention of Development Planning in China, 1993–2012. In: Modern China 39 (November 2013), S. 580–628.

In studies of China’s economic rise and political system, multiyear comprehensive and sectoral plans issued by the national government tend to be played down as futile efforts at reigning in a political economy increasingly driven by market incentives and decentralized decisions. Contrary to this, we provide evidence that China’s planning system has been transformed alongside the economic transition, yet remains central to almost all domains of public policy making and the political institutions that have fostered China’s high-speed growth and economic stability. The incorporation of experimental programs into macro-plans, a tiered hierarchy of policy oversight, newly introduced mid-course plan evaluations, and systematic top-level policy review have allowed Chinese planners to play a central role in economic policy making without succumbing to the rigidity traps that debased traditional planned economies. By better understanding how the planning cycle influences incentives and resources of successive layers of bureaucracies and jurisdictions, and how it updates itself and adapts to new challenges, it is possible to explain a greater proportion of the Chinese policy-making process, including many of its successes and pathologies.

Hu Angang: The Distinctive Transition of China’s Five-Year Plans. Modern China 39 (November 2013), S. 629–639.

China has taken a distinctive path of economic transition, combining both the market and the plan. In introducing the market mechanism, the government has not abandoned the planning mechanism, as was done in other socialist countries, but instead has reformed it. The five-year plan has thus been transformed from economic planning to public affairs governance planning. Today the plan and the market are combined so that the two supplement and stimulate each other.

Barry Naughton: The Return of Planning in China. Comment on Heilmann–Melton and Hu Angang. In: Modern China 39 (November 2013), S. 640–652.

Heilmann and Melton break important new ground in describing the revival of development planning in China and showing how planning is now interwoven with other aspects of the political system, particularly policy formulation and cadre evaluation. Clarification of the instruments planners use and their link to developmental outcomes would improve the argument. Although planners believe their plans are consistent with a market economy, it may turn out that the revival of planning after 2003 was purchased at the cost of significant distortions in the market economy and reduced efficiency.

Heiko Khoo: China’s modern planning system (China.org.cn)

The 12th Five-Year Plan comes to a close this year and the 13th Five-Year Plan is being elaborated, so it is worth looking at how China’s planning system functions so we can better understand the forces driving China’s economy.

Kommende Revolution? Neoautoritarismus?
Dez 7th, 2013 by Gao

Daniel Morley, Congyue Dai: China: Growing Strikes, Corruption and Debt are Harbingers of coming Revolution (International Marxist Tendency)

Six months into China’s new Politburo Standing Committee under Xi Jinping’s Presidency, it has become abundantly clear that the next ten years under his rule will not resemble the relative social stability and rapid growth of the past ten years. The cart will not keep on rolling down the same path. Xi Jinping and the Chinese Communist Party stand at a crossroads, facing that classic dilemma of all ruling classes – either to open up to democratic reform or clamp down on growing dissent?

Chris Buckley: Xi, in ‘Godfather’ Mold, Looks Assertive and Even Imperial (New York Times)

Mr. Xi emerged from a four-day meeting of the Communist Party Central Committee stronger. He won endorsement for a new national security commission that is likely to enhance his influence, as well as for a leadership group on reform that could give him a more direct say in economic policy, which has tended to be the prime minister’s domain. …
“Xi sees power in very personal terms and seems ready to act on that understanding,” said Joseph Fewsmith, a professor at Boston University who specializes in Chinese elite politics. “Whether that is good for China is another question.”
Xiao Gongqin, one of China’s most prominent proponents of “neo-authoritarianism,” thinks Mr. Xi is very a good thing: a new incarnation of his idea of a model leader, Deng Xiaoping.

Landwirtschaft, Staatskapitalismus, Globalisierung
Mai 3rd, 2013 by Gao

Samir Amin: China 2013 (Monthly Review)

In fact the question, “Is China capitalist or socialist?” is badly posed, too general and abstract for any response to make sense in terms of this absolute alternative. In fact, China has actually been following an original path since 1950, and perhaps even since the Taiping Revolution in the nineteenth century. I shall attempt here to clarify the nature of this original path at each of the stages of its development from 1950 to today—2013.

Lenin-Konferenz | Notizen zu Giovanni Arrighi und Joel Andreas
Nov 13th, 2012 by Gao

Bericht von der Lenin-Konferenz; ausländische Teilnehmer u.a. Paul LeBlanc; Ella Rule (stv. Vorsitzende der CPGB/ML); Roland Boer (Stalin’s Moustache); Алексей В. Гусев (Научно-просветительский центр «Праксис»); aus Österreich: Benjamin Opratko und Fritz Weber.

Elemente der Debatte über Arrighi und Andreas:

Derzeitiges Wachstum beruht auf Infrastruktur, die nach 1978 geschaffen wurde; Ländliche Unternehmen spiele nur eine Vermittlerrolle. Arrighi sagt, dass China keine kapitalistische Marktwirtschaft ist. [Joel] Andreas dazu: das stimmt nur, wenn man eine sehr spezifische Definition von „Kapitalismus“ hat (Weltsystemtheorie). Das staatliche Kapital arbeitet nicht anders als privates Kapital, beide nach Wertgesetz.

Literatur, die in der Diskussion erwähnt wurde:

Cao Jinqing: China Along the Yellow River. Reflections on Rural Society. Routledge, 2005; aus dem Chinesischen von Nicky Harman und Huang Ruhua; Original: Cáo Jǐnqīng 曹锦清: Huáng Hé biān de Zhōngguó 《黄 河边的中国》. Shànghǎi wényì chūbǎnshè 上海文艺出版社 2001.

Е. А. Преображенский über ursprüngliche sozialistische Akkumulation, Akkumulation von Kapital aus vorkapitalistischen Formationen (Новая экономика. Опыт теоретического анализа советского хозяйства, dt.: Die neue Ökonomik und От нэп’а к социализму. Взгляд на будущее России и Европы; dt.: Von der NÖP zum Sozialismus), vgl. The New Economics E. Preobrazhensky 1926 (karlmarx.net)

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