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Maoisten
Apr 12th, 2017 by Gao

Brian Hioe: A Red Star Over China? (New Bloom) 丘琦欣:紅星照耀中國?(破土)

Perhaps one of the most significant intellectual formations operating in today’s world, China’s New Left arose in the 1990s in opposition to the turn of China away from a centrally planned economy and a return to free market principles after the Deng Xiaoping period. More broadly, the New Left project emphasizes the growing disparities between rural and urban areas in post-Deng China, the sacrifice of principles of equality in order to drive toward development, and calls for a critical revaluation of China’s Maoist legacy in light of China’s present—inclusive of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
What is “New Left” is hard to pin down. The name “New Left” was a term appropriated from conservative critics who were quick to claim the New Left to be some form of resurgent Red Guard fanaticism. In that sense, “New Left” may be a misleading term, insofar as the Chinese New Left is a contemporary phenomenon, and one with little to do with the western New Left of the late 1960s. The New Left largely consists of academics, many of which have studied abroad and are influenced by forms of western critical theory. The New Left finds itself in opposition to the “Liberals” who welcome China’s capitalization and call for the institution of western style political reforms along the lines of America or of western European powers.

中國的新左派可說是當代世界中最重要的知識分子群體之一,他們在 1990 年代因為反對中國在鄧小平時代過後放棄計畫經濟,轉向自由市場原理而竄起。更大程度上,新左派的研究課題著重於後鄧小平時期城鄉差距的持續擴大,以及為求發展而犧牲平等原則,並呼籲對毛澤東時代的遺產進行批判性再評價以回應當前局勢,其中包括大躍進和文化大革命。
   「新左派」究竟是什麼,其實很難明確定義。「新左派」一名取自於那些急於將新左派定性為某種紅衛兵狂熱再現的保守派批評者。照那樣說來,「新左派」這個詞恐怕會產生誤導,因為中國的新左派是個當代現象,和 1960 年代晚期西方的新左派幾乎毫無關聯。新左派的成員大多是學者,其中很多人都曾出國留學,受到各種西方批判理論影響。新左派與歡迎中國走向資本主義化,呼籲依照美國及西歐強國的路線進行西方式政治改革的「自由派」彼此對立。

Brian Hioe: Anti-Capitalist Within China, Imperialist Outside of China? (New Bloom) 丘琦欣:中國國內的反資本主義者,出了境外卻是帝國主義者?(破土)

From a left perspective, the Chinese New Left’s critique of capitalism remains quite sympathetic when confined to within China’s borders. With the recent arrest of labor activists in Guangzhou, Chinese New Left publication Ground Breaking, for example, was one of the first to rally for support—even at risk to itself. Ground Breaking has reacted similarly in past incidents in which the Chinese state acts on behalf of capital and against the interests of the working class. Perhaps in this respect, given the threat of state suppression, they are to be praised for their bravery on certain issues. It is the New Left’s international viewpoints, concerning outside of China, which may ultimately be most problematic.

從左翼觀點來看,新左派對資本主義的批判多少還是能引人共鳴的,只要它的適用範圍限於中國國內。比方說,近日多位勞工運動者在廣州被逮捕之後,中國新左派的網刊「破土」(Ground Breaking,GB)是首先發動聲援的,卻不顧自身同樣面臨風險。而在過去幾次中國政府為資本利益護航,侵害工人階級利益的事件之中,「破土」也採取了同樣的行動。或許就這點來說,考慮到國家鎮壓的威脅,他們確實應當為了勇於聲援某些議題而得到讚揚。可是新左派的國際主義觀點一旦涉及境外議題,恐怕就再令人存疑不過了。

Chris Buckley: Maoists for Trump? In China, Fans Admire His Nationalist Views (New York Times) 储百亮:特朗普的出现让中国毛左为之一振(New York Times)

They protest, picket and sing to defend Mao’s memory, yearning for the East to be red again. But lately some of China’s Maoists are finding inspiration in an unlikely insurgent in the West: Donald J. Trump.
Mr. Trump “has torn up the old rules of the ruling elites, not just of the capitalist West,” said Zhang Hongliang, a polemicist who is the loudest proponent of what could be loosely called “Maoists for Trump.” In a recent essay, Mr. Zhang lauded the American president as being alone among national leaders daring “to openly promote the political ideas of Chairman Mao.”
President Xi Jinping of China will be sizing up Mr. Trump during a visit to his Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida this week, in the leaders’ first summit meeting. Meanwhile, many ordinary Chinese people have also been taking the measure of the new American president and have been bewildered, incensed and yet, sometimes, inspired.
The global wave of nationalist, anti-establishment sentiment that Mr. Trump rode to power has washed ashore in China, encouraging a hard-left fringe that is hostile to capitalism and Western influence, and that the Communist Party has long sought to cultivate — and contain.

北京——他们用抗议、纠察和歌唱来捍卫对毛泽东的记忆,渴望再现东方红。但最近,让中国的一些毛派人士为之一振的,是西方世界里的一个出人意料的叛逆者:唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)。
   特朗普“不仅撕裂了西方资本主义世界的旧有规则,还撕裂了统治精英的旧有规则,”能言善辩的“拥护特朗普的毛派”中坚力量张宏良说。在前不久的一篇文章里,张宏良称赞特朗普是唯一一位“敢于公开宣传毛主席政治理念”的国家领导人。
   中美首脑首次峰会于下周在佛罗里达州马阿拉歌庄园举行之际,到访的中国国家主席习近平将对特朗普作出评估。与此同时,很多普通的中国人也在掂量新上台的美国总统的斤两,他或许让他们困惑,或许激起了他们的怒火,但有时也能让他们感到振奋。
   把特朗普送上了权力巅峰的民族主义和反建制情绪正在全球泛滥,中国也不例外。这种潮流让敌视资本主义和西方影响的中国极左派人士受到了鼓励,他们是共产党一直在培育——以及限制——的一个边缘群体。

Kubin
Jan 3rd, 2016 by Gao

Hans Christoph Buch: «Ohne Meinungsfreiheit verkommt das Land» (Neue Zürcher Zeitung)

Während er in China eine Berühmtheit ist, kennt ihn hierzulande nur ein kleiner Kreis von Eingeweihten. Der Sinologe und Dichter Wolfgang Kubin wird am 17. Dezember siebzig.

Wang Yanhui: Wolfgang Kubins Neuauflage, ein altes Buch in neuem Umschlag (Radio China International)
苏梵:顾彬:中国男人根本不理解女人(多维新闻)

Wang Hui | Cui Jian | Arbeitswelt | Schulwesen
Jan 20th, 2014 by Gao

En Liang Khong: After the party: an interview with Wang Hui (openDemocracy)

The luminary of China’s emergent “New Left” speaks to openDemocracy about the lessons of labour unrest, the Cultural Revolution as taboo, and post-party politics.

韩浩月:崔健上不上春晚没必要过度拔高(新京报)
歌曲未通过审查 崔健退出马年春晚(财讯)

17日近23时,马年春晚的最新消息,“摇滚教父”崔健因歌曲《一无所有》未通过审查,在带妆彩排前退出马年春晚。据悉,崔健准备在马年春晚舞台上唱响《一无所有》的消息传出后,对于摇滚界的音乐人以及喜欢摇滚的发烧友产生了不小的震动。

China protest singer Cui Jian pulls out of TV gala (BBC)

Chinese singer Cui Jian, one of whose songs became an anthem of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, has pulled out of a major show on state TV. …
His manager You You said that he withdrew after organisers tried to censor his performance.
In 1989, he had performed to protesting students in Tiananmen Square, who took up his song Nothing to My Name.
Cui Jian had wanted to sing the song during the gala, but the organisers said he would have to choose another, You You told AP. …
His manager says that he has been asked to perform on national TV before.
But she adds these events sometimes fall through because Cui Jian refuses to lip sync.

Jamie Merrill: China’s rock rebel Cui Jian gets the Party startled (Independent)
APA: Chinesischer Rockstar Cui Jian sagte Auftritt bei Staatsgala ab (Standard)

Zwei etwas ältere Artikel, die aus Versehen bisher nicht hier gelandet sind:
Rolf Geffken: Arbeit in China: Harmonie & Konflikt – Ein Konferenzbericht (China Observer)

Noch während Mitte Dezember 2013 die chinesischen Medien über Ausgabenkürzungen der öffentlichen Haushalte, eine Reduzierung der Kreditaufnahme und eine Erhöhung des Renteneintrittsalters berichteten, ging in Beijing eine hochrangige Wirtschaftskonferenz zu Ende, die der Umsetzung der Beschlüsse des 3. Plenums des 18. Zentralkomitees der KP Chinas diente. Offensichtlich steht die Wirtschaft Chinas an einem Scheideweg. Der Pfad des jahrelangen Wachstums scheint einer möglichen Stagnation zu weichen. Schon fordern chinesische Wirtschaftsexperten eine verstärkte “Erhöhung der Produktivität” anstelle von anhaltendem Wirtschaftswachstum und einer anhaltenden Steigerung der Staatsausgaben.
In der Sprache des Kapitals bedeutet die Erhöhung von Produktivität vor allem: die Reduzierung von Kosten bei gleichzeitiger Erhöhung des Produktionsergebnisses. Technische Innovation ist dabei nur ein Stichwort. Aktuelle Umfragen etwa unter deutschen Konsumenten zeigen das Qualitätsdefizit chinesischer Produkte auf dem Weltmarkt auf. Zweifellos wird die jetzt bevorstehende Qualitätsoffensive in China auch und gerade auf die Reduzierung der Arbeitskosten abzielen. Weniger qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte werden entlassen werden. Die bisherige Welle von Lohnerhöhungen dürfte einstweilen gestoppt werden. Ob dies auf Gegenliebe bei der arbeitenden Bevölkerung Chinas stößt, ist allerdings fraglich. Im Gegenteil: Eine Verschärfung der sozialen Konflikte, in Sonderheit der Arbeitskonflikte, erscheint vorprogrammiert.

Liz Carter: Chinese Literature Textbooks Modified to Curb ‘Deep Thinking’ (Tea Leaf Nation)

Recent changes to China’s teaching curriculum have made the news: an essay by the father of modern Chinese literature, Lu Xun (1881 – 1936), has gone missing from new editions of middle school textbooks. Citing the need for more “age-appropriate” material, the People’s Education Press has removed Lu Xun’s essay “The Kite” from its most recent edition, replacing it with an essay entitled “Autumn Nostalgia” by Shi Tiesheng. …
An article analyzing the changes published by Xinhua News Agency, China’s state-run media, noted that, “Middle school students should not be reading anything too deep.” Zhao Yu, an author quoted in the article, voiced his agreement with the decision, stating that, “We shouldn’t make students undertake reflection and critical thinking too soon; instead, we should let them gradually accumulate knowledge.”

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