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Ungleichheit, Armut und Armutsbekämpfung
Jul 6th, 2018 by Gao

Facundo Alvaredo, Lucas Chancel, Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman: Global Inequality Dynamics: New Findings from WID.world (American Economic Review, Mai 2017)

Rising inequality has attracted considerable interest in recent years, as shown by the attention received by an academic book published by one of us (Piketty 2014). Yet we still face important limitations in our ability to measure the changing distribution of income and wealth, within and between countries and at the world level. In this paper, we present new findings about global inequality dynamics from the World Wealth and Income Database (WID.world). We start with a brief history of the WID.world project. We then present selected findings on income inequality, private versus public wealth-to-income ratios, and wealth inequality, with emphasis on the contrast between the trends in the United States, China, France, and the United Kingdom…

Rob Schmitz: Xi Jinping’s War On Poverty Moves Millions Of Chinese Off The Farm (NPR, 19. Oktober 2017)

China’s government hopes city life will push tens of millions into the workforce on their way to joining the world’s largest middle class. In the first five years of Xi’s presidency, more than 60 million Chinese have risen above the poverty line; Xi wants to move 70 million more Chinese above that line within the next three years, a goal China’s government is more tightly focused on than ever. …
[O]fficials in Guizhou … plan to move more than 750,000 people off farms by the end of the year from nearly 3,600 villages.

(Es gibt einen Eugene K. Chow, der Redenschreiber für den New Yorker Bürgermeister Bill de Blasio war.)
Eugene K. Chow: China’s War on Poverty Could Hurt the Poor Most (Foreign Policy, 8. Jänner 2018)

The government is pushing people out of rural squalor — and into urban dependence.

Spencer Sheehan: China’s Hukou Reforms and the Urbanization Challenge (The Diplomat, 22. Feber 2018)

China is speeding up hukou reform, but that won’t be enough to solve the migrant worker problem.
China’s government has announced a lofty goal of expanding urban hukou or residency permits to 100 million migrant workers by 2020 as part of its plan to rebalance its economy. However, the government needs to deliver a whole range of supporting policies to achieve this goal and it may not have the financing to provide them.

Philip Alston: Report of the [UN] Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to China (PDF; 28. März 2017)

The achievements that China has made in alleviating poverty have been extraordinary. Its leadership has made a strong and genuine commitment to building a “moderately prosperous society” free of extreme poverty, thus showing political will that is impressive and all too uncommon in today’s world…
While China has done a huge amount to promote economic and social wellbeing, this has not yet been translated into an approach based on treating economic and social rights as human rights.

Javier C. Hernández: Xi Jinping Vows No Poverty in China by 2020. That Could Be Hard. (New York Times, 31. Oktober 2017)

Nearly seven decades after the Chinese Communist Party rose to power on a promise of prosperity for all, President Xi Jinping has vowed to fulfill the Communists’ original intent, staking his legacy on an ambitious plan to complete the eradication of rural poverty by 2020…
Even as Chinese cities have turned into playgrounds for the nouveau riche and the swelling ranks of the middle class, nearly 500 million people, or about 40 percent of China’s population, live on less than $5.50 per day, according to the World Bank.
“The whole idea of socialism was that all Chinese would have a reasonable living standard,” said Kerry Brown, a China scholar at King’s College London. “The nagging concern is that the Communist Party has created billionaires and a strong middle class, and yet there are still a lot of poor people. That seems to be a massive contradiction.”

Ein wichtiger Diskussionsbeitrag in diesem Zusammenhang:
Felix Wemheuer: Auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus? Kritische Anmerkungen zu den Unterstützern der heutigen KP China in der westlichen Linken (Kommunistische Debatte)

Seit dem Ende der Kulturrevolution 1976 und dem Niedergang der westeuropäischen ML-Bewegung haben sich viele Linke lange nicht mehr für die Entwicklung in China interessiert. In den letzten 15 Jahren häufen sich allerdings linke Publikationen zum Charakter der Volksrepublik. Mittlerweile ist China eine politische und wirtschaftliche Großmacht. Während mit dem chinesischen „Wirtschaftswunder“ im Westen lange nur Sweatshops und Billigwaren verbunden wurden, investiert das chinesische Kapital heute auf allen Kontinenten. Selbst in Deutschland kauft es im großen Stil Unternehmen auf. Laut den Plänen der chinesischen Regierung soll die VR zum 100. Jahrestag ihrer Gründung, 2049, ein hochentwickeltes Industrieland sein. „Der Spiegel“ rief sogar die westliche Welt dazu auf, endlich aufzuwachen, da China schon jetzt die Nummer Eins sei. Die gegenwärtige Verschiebung der globalen Machtverhältnisse können auch Linke in Europa nicht ignorieren. Allerdings gehen die Einschätzungen zum Charakter der VR weit auseinander: Theodor Bergmann sieht das Land auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus (…). Der bekannte marxistische Geograph David Harvey hingegen reihte 2005 auf dem Titelbild seines Buches „Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus“ Deng Xiaoping in eine wenig schmeichelhafte Ahnengalerie zusammen mit Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher und dem chilenischen Diktator Augusto Pinochet ein.

Geopolitik
Okt 22nd, 2014 by Gao

Pierre Rousset: Geopolitical chaos and its implications: introductory notes for collective thinking (International Viewpoint)

Climate chaos is a new structural situation caused by atmospheric warming of human (in fact capitalist) origin. The current geopolitical chaos also seems to be a new structural situation caused by capitalist globalization and the choices imposed by the traditional imperialist bourgeoisies. Because chaos exists, and its causes are deep.

Patrick Bond: BRICS and the tendency to sub-imperialism (Pambazuka)

The rise of the Brazil-Russia-India-China-South Africa (BRICS) bloc represents a potentially important geopolitical and economic force that, in early 2014, suffers a worsening schizophrenia, in terms of positioning within global political economy. The bloc’s more radical proponents argue it has ‘anti-imperialist’ potential. But there are far greater dangers of BRICS playing a ‘sub-imperialist’ role in contributing to neoliberal regime maintenance (especially in Africa), or even an inter-imperialist role as Russia appears tempted in the Ukraine/Crimea theatre. But there is potential, as well, for popular forces to unite in a role more akin to solidaristic cross-border anti-imperialism, given the extreme contradictions and intensity of social unrest in each site.

Pierre Rousset: D’où surgit le nouveau capitalisme chinois ? « Bourgeoisification » de la bureaucratie et mondialisation (Europe solidaire sans frontières)

D’où surgit le nouveau capitalisme chinois, qu’est-ce qui a permis son envol et quelles sont ses particularités ? Quelles interrogations de fond cette expérience contemporaine soulève-t-elle ? Ce sont ces questions que la présente contribution veut aborder.

Pierre Rousset: Chinese ambitions – An imperialism in formation (International Viewpoint)

China is not an „emerging country“ but a power that has emerged. It is not a „sub-imperialism“ ensuring order in its own region, but an imperialism „in formation.“ The new Chinese bourgeoisie is aiming to play in the big league. The success of its enterprise is still far from assured, but this ambition determines its international policies, both economic and military.

Drogen | „Anpassungsvermögen, Leistungsdenken und Legitimität“
Okt 16th, 2013 by Gao

Jonathan Marshall: Cooking the Books: The Federal Bureau of Narcotics, the China Lobby and Cold War Propaganda, 1950-1962 (Japan Focus)

In recent years, influential interest groups and policy makers have leveled epithets like “narco-terrorism” and “narco-communism” against targets such as Cuba, Nicaragua, Iran, Panama, Syria, the Taliban, and Venezuela to justify harsh policies ranging from economic sanctions to armed invasion, while ignoring or downplaying evidence implicating U.S. allies …
To shed historical light on the dangers of turning international drug enforcement into a political weapon, this paper re-examines a classic case of alleged manipulation of narcotics intelligence: the vilification of Communist China by U.S. Commissioner of Narcotics Harry J. Anslinger at the height of the Cold War. His inflammatory rhetoric denouncing the People’s Republic of China (PRC) as an evil purveyor of narcotics went largely unchallenged in the Western media during the 1950s and early 1960s, when Anslinger acted as America’s leading drug enforcement official and its official representative to the United Nations Commission on Narcotic Drugs (CND). As we shall see, his charges strongly reinforced Washington’s case for diplomatic isolation of China, including its exclusion from the United Nations. …
As late as 1970, the Bureau of Narcotics and Dangerous Drugs (BNDD), successor to the FBN, still officially maintained that “opium is cultivated in vast quantities in the Yunnan Province of China.” But within a year, with the advent of “Ping-Pong diplomacy” and the Nixon administration’s startling opening to China, Washington brazenly reversed its longstanding position.

John aus Kūnmíng hat diesen Link geschickt:
Minxin Pei: Wooing China’s Princelings (Project Syndicate)

Outside China, princelings are feeling the heat as well. Not long ago, the United States Securities and Exchange Commission announced that it was investigating JPMorgan Chase’s hiring of princelings in Hong Kong, who apparently delivered lucrative underwriting deals for the bank.

Michael C. aus Běijīng hat mich auf diesen vortrag von Eric X. Li (Woher kommt das X? Er heißt Lǐ Shìmò!) hingewiesen:
Eric X. Li: A tale of two political systems (TED/YouTube)
auch mit chinesischen und englischen Untertiteln verfügbar:
李世默:两种制度的传说 (TED/Youku)
„Anpassungsvermögen, Leistungsdenken und Legitimität sind die drei Merkmale, die das Ein-Parteien-System in China kennzeichnen.“ Alles was er da sagt, könnte man sehr kontrovers diskutieren.

Landwirtschaft, Staatskapitalismus, Globalisierung
Mai 3rd, 2013 by Gao

Samir Amin: China 2013 (Monthly Review)

In fact the question, “Is China capitalist or socialist?” is badly posed, too general and abstract for any response to make sense in terms of this absolute alternative. In fact, China has actually been following an original path since 1950, and perhaps even since the Taiping Revolution in the nineteenth century. I shall attempt here to clarify the nature of this original path at each of the stages of its development from 1950 to today—2013.

Lenin-Konferenz | Notizen zu Giovanni Arrighi und Joel Andreas
Nov 13th, 2012 by Gao

Bericht von der Lenin-Konferenz; ausländische Teilnehmer u.a. Paul LeBlanc; Ella Rule (stv. Vorsitzende der CPGB/ML); Roland Boer (Stalin’s Moustache); Алексей В. Гусев (Научно-просветительский центр «Праксис»); aus Österreich: Benjamin Opratko und Fritz Weber.

Elemente der Debatte über Arrighi und Andreas:

Derzeitiges Wachstum beruht auf Infrastruktur, die nach 1978 geschaffen wurde; Ländliche Unternehmen spiele nur eine Vermittlerrolle. Arrighi sagt, dass China keine kapitalistische Marktwirtschaft ist. [Joel] Andreas dazu: das stimmt nur, wenn man eine sehr spezifische Definition von „Kapitalismus“ hat (Weltsystemtheorie). Das staatliche Kapital arbeitet nicht anders als privates Kapital, beide nach Wertgesetz.

Literatur, die in der Diskussion erwähnt wurde:

Cao Jinqing: China Along the Yellow River. Reflections on Rural Society. Routledge, 2005; aus dem Chinesischen von Nicky Harman und Huang Ruhua; Original: Cáo Jǐnqīng 曹锦清: Huáng Hé biān de Zhōngguó 《黄 河边的中国》. Shànghǎi wényì chūbǎnshè 上海文艺出版社 2001.

Е. А. Преображенский über ursprüngliche sozialistische Akkumulation, Akkumulation von Kapital aus vorkapitalistischen Formationen (Новая экономика. Опыт теоретического анализа советского хозяйства, dt.: Die neue Ökonomik und От нэп’а к социализму. Взгляд на будущее России и Европы; dt.: Von der NÖP zum Sozialismus), vgl. The New Economics E. Preobrazhensky 1926 (karlmarx.net)

China ein imperialistischer Staat?
Okt 4th, 2012 by Gao

Debatte mit Michael Pröbsting, Hermann Dworczak und Gerhard Bruny: Ist China ein imperialistischer oder ein sozialistischer Staat? Podiumsdiskussion am 28.9.2012 (Video, Labournet Austria)
Michael Pröbsting: China’s Transformation into an Imperialist Power.

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