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Urbanisierung | Wachstum | Lateinamerika
Jan 30th, 2015 by Gao

Eli Friedman: The Urbanization of the Chinese Working Class (Jacobin)

China has problems. Not despite thirty-five years of record-breaking growth, but because of it. The country’s dependence on exports and investment-led development has resulted in stark inequality, underconsumption, over-investment, disappearing arable land, exorbitant housing prices, and a looming environmental catastrophe. This leaves China increasingly vulnerable to a number of potential crises: external economic shocks, housing market collapse, mass defaults on public debt, and fits of social unrest.
What, then, might ensure the stability of Chinese capitalism for another generation?
For the state, a big part of the answer is urbanization. In the recently released National New Urbanization Plan (2014–2020), the central government calls for more than 100 million people to move to cities by 2020, pushing China’s urban population to 60 percent. The plan sets out admirable goals such as an expansion of public housing, education, and health services, a reduction in carbon emissions and other environmentally destructive activities, and preservation of agricultural land through limits on sprawl.

Jonathan Kaiman, Heather Stewart: Hard times return as China bids to bring its economic miracle to an end (Guardian)

Beijing insists slow growth is part of a plan to bring years of explosive expansion under control. But the global slowdown may make it hard to soft-land an economy still hooked on exports…
Official figures published last week showed that China’s GDP expanded by 7.4% in 2014. That was a significant drop from the 7.7% seen in 2013, and the weakest rate of growth since 1990…

Ralf Streck: China mischt den „Hinterhof“ der USA auf (Telepolis)

Nicht nur der Brics-Staat Russland treibt im Zuge der Sanktionspolitik der USA und Europas verstärkt Projekte in Lateinamerika voran (…). Den großen Wurf will nun das große Brics-Land China in der Region machen, die in den USA so gerne als „Hinterhof“ bezeichnet wird. In Washington ist man nicht sehr erfreut darüber, dass allein China im kommenden Jahrzehnt rund 250 Milliarden US-Dollar in Mittel- und Südamerika und der Karibik investieren will, womit sich das Handelsvolumen auf eine halbe Billion verdoppeln soll. Wichtigster Handelspartner Brasiliens (ebenfalls ein Brics-Staat) ist schon jetzt nicht mehr die USA, sondern China. Und das gilt auch schon für Chile und Peru. Über diese Entwicklung ist das Imperium im Norden besorgt. Das Tauwetter zwischen den USA und Kuba muss in diesem Zusammenhang gesehen werden.

Nebenbei:
Geoffrey Crothall: People’s Daily tries and fails to understand problem of wage arrears in China (China Labour Bulletin)
Ian Johnson: The Rat Tribe of Beijing (AlJazeera)
APA: Bürgermeister: Peking „wirklich nicht lebenswert“ (Standard)
Reuters: China stellt Milizen an der Grenze zu Nordkorea auf (Standard)
Catherine Phillips: $242 Billion High-Speed Beijing-Moscow Rail Link Approved (Newsweek)
APA: Chinesen bauen Bostoner U-Bahn (Standard)

Hintergrund zu den Protesten in Hongkong
Okt 13th, 2014 by Gao

毛來由:為何英國不早給香港民主?英國檔案提供的答案(《輔仁》)

「我們(英國人)五十年前就可以給予香港民主,但若然這樣做,中國會爆發,甚至入侵香港,這是我們的憂慮。」和黃前董事總經理馬世民(Simon Murray)在一次報章專訪中這樣說。一直以來,親北京的公眾人物和報章評論,甚至一般市民,都質疑英國為何百年來都不給香港民主,要到1984年《聯合聲明》簽署,香港前途確定以後,「才大搞民主」。其實,只要稍讀英帝國歷史,就知道在二次大戰結束後,英國在絕大部份殖民地,都實行政治改革,逐步建立由當地公民普選產生的政府,以達至獨立(如馬來西亞),或自治(如1959年的新加坡、今日的直布羅陀)。這裏所講的自治(Self-Government),是指除了國防外交,有時還包括內部保安繼續由英國負責外,所有事務都交由當地民選政府全權處理。

Gwynn Guilford: The secret history of Hong Kong’s stillborn democracy (Quartz)
Alex Lo: Hong Kong protests expose the real rot in society (South China Morning Post)

Many Hong Kong people are unhappy, but it’s unlikely they were solely driven to fight police because they were upset by Beijing restricting the choice of candidates for the future chief executive. The pan-democrats may insist on that. But people say or do one thing and usually mean something more. It is the fact of widespread social discontent that should trouble our ruling elite. If you want a picture of what’s rotten, visualise a recent newspaper front page which showed a group of ageing tycoons sitting in a semi-circle with President Xi Jinping while another photo depicted young student protesters.
That’s the rich vs poor; the old vs young; the well-connected vs the disadvantaged; those who have power and others who are voiceless. It’s a generational crisis, not just a political one. Extreme inequalities exist in education, job opportunities and social mobility.

Nick McKenzie, Richard Baker, John Garnaut: Hong Kong chief executive CY Leung faces questions over secret $7m payout from Australian firm (Sydney Morning Herald)

Hong Kong’s embattled chief executive, CY Leung, has pocketed millions in secret fees from a listed Australian company in return for supporting its Asian business ambitions, a Fairfax Media investigation can reveal.
The arrangement is outlined in a secret contract dated December 2, 2011, before he was elected chief executive, in which Australian engineering company UGL agreed to pay the Beijing-backed politician £4 million (more than $A7 million).

Jonathan Kaiman: Hong Kong pro-democracy activists reinforce barricades at protest site (Guardian)

Pro-democracy demonstrators in central Hong Kong have used cement to reinforce the barricades defending a protest site after being attacked by counter-protesters on Monday afternoon, raising the stakes in a student-led movement which has paralysed huge swaths of the city for the past 16 days.
Hours after police began removing barricades across the city on Monday morning, hundreds of men – some of them wearing surgical masks to hide their faces – stormed various protest sites, assaulting protesters and dragging away remaining barricades themselves. Some were armed with crowbars and cutting tools, according to media reports. “Open the roads,” they chanted. Police at one point formed a human barrier to keep the two sides apart.

AFP: Hong Kong leader says pro-democracy protests will not change Beijing’s stance (Guardian)
Cindy Sui: Watching Hong Kong: Taiwan on guard against China (BBC)

While improved ties with China in recent years have been welcomed by many here, others worry about Beijing’s growing influence.
Its recent refusal to let Hong Kong decide who can run for chief executive confirms Taiwanese suspicions that China would never allow Taiwan to govern itself if the two sides reunified.

Alan Yu, Kathy Gao, Clifford Lo, Jeffie Lam, Raquel Carvalho, Samuel Chan, Timmy Sung, Ng Kang-chung, Ernest Kao: A battle for the streets: clashes between Occupy activists and opponents intensify (South China Morning Post)

Hundreds of Occupy Central opponents converged on Admiralty at around lunchtime yesterday in what appeared to be a well-orchestrated and carefully timed operation to remove road barriers that had paralysed traffic for more than two weeks.
Tense confrontations and scuffles with Occupy protesters ensued, and at least 22 people were arrested.
The chaotic scenes were the first to break out at the Admiralty protest site since police backed down after using tear gas to clear the sit-in on September 28.

Suzanne Sataline: Hong Kong Protesters Are Digging In (Foreign Policy)

Outside of the Admiralty subway station in downtown Hong Kong, about 30 young people sat on the pavement near a large and dusty pile of plaster, plasterboard, and wood, which someone had scrounged from an office renovation nearby. Wearing cotton gloves and safety masks, the young men and women pulled nails from thin slats. Some used bricks to nudge the iron from the slats. The dust rose and the sound glanced off steel beams overhead. The building of new barricades had begun.

汪洋批外国图掀港“颜色革命”(《文汇报》~《大公報》)

占领中环”被西方传媒形容为“雨伞革命”,又被指有外国势力操纵。国务院副总理汪洋上周六在出访俄罗斯期间指出,西方国家目前正支持香港反对派,试图在香港发动所谓“颜色革命”。汪洋强调中国反对西方借助制裁施压,认为在目前复杂的形势下,中国与俄罗斯应该集中精力,致力于发展两国的战略互利合作,以此作为对西方国家的回应。

李文、蕭爾:中共黨報發文首次形容「佔中」是「動亂」(BBC)

《人民日報》海外版周六(11日)發表了一篇署名評論文章,文中多次以「動亂」形容已經進入第14天的香港「佔中」示威抗議行動。
這篇評論文章發表在人民日報的《望海樓》專欄裏,題為《香港還有多少家底可供糟蹋?》,作者是中國商務部研究院研究員梅新育。
文章認為「在公民黨等泛民陣線製造的一場又一場武力無聊政治惡斗」中,香港付出的顯性經濟成本和隱性損失已經太多。
文章指出,,「『佔中』動亂的顯性經濟成本主要是特區政府為應付動亂增加的開支、香港股市下跌蒸發的市值、餐飲零售旅遊行業在國慶黃金周損失的營業收入」,而隱性損失則是「讓香港居民、特別是香港青年失去賴以安身立命和向上流動的機會」。

Didi Kirsten Tatlow: Relatives of People Detained for Supporting Hong Kong Protests Appeal for Their Freedom (New York Times)
可樂:佔領旺角可能分裂(獨立媒體) / Holok Chen: Hotpot, Gods, and „Leftist Pricks“: Political Tensions in the Mong Kok Occupation (Libcom)

事緣前日(9/10)在旺角佔領區發生了一個名為「旺角新村」的活動,內容包括 乒乓球、打邊爐、綿花糖等,位置遠離亞皆老街帳篷,在與山東街交接的一段較空曠的彌敦道上。同場有人策劃了名為佔領小屋設計比賽的活動,有人用紙皮建造小屋,並冠上「彌敦一號」等名號供人休息。活動的照片迅速在社交平台及網上媒體傳開,引起十分大的反應。
在Whatsapp群組也有流傳消息,第一波的消息,是指策劃者是「藍絲帶」,應立即制止及清場,而第二波,就製圖指是「左翼廿一」滋事,到了第三波,網上有輿論領袖以安全為由呼籲制止打邊爐後,流傳的訊息就比較強調是明火危險及聚賭對運動形象有損。據稱一開首有人過去勸止時,仍是可以討論的,但很快就有更多人圍住打邊爐的人叫囂,最後爐具和打球的設備都被收起。而佔領小屋設計比賽一邊,反應不俗,吸引了很多佔領的公眾,但亦有被批評為「阻街」,雖然小屋是位於路障之內。……
這場正在發酵中的衝突仍然持續。在爭普選運動的主題下,我認為公民社會都應該留意旺角的事態發展。因為這場衝突很可能決定未來公民社會的質地。

Kristine Kwok: Never retreat, a Mong Kok state of mind (South China Morning Post)

Mong Kok was blocked by barricades at the intersection of Nathan Road and Argyle Street. … Thirteen days on, the site has evolved from just a few barricades to a fully furnished settlement with self-made marquees, tents, beds and religious shrines.
Its occupants have faced hostility and violence from opponents and what they believe to be „defeatist“ calls for retreat from movement organisers. With a hardline stance that has left them feeling alienated from events across Victoria Harbour, the mission has taken on a life of its own.
Unlike the crowds on Hong Kong Island, this mixture of students, grass-roots underdogs, self-styled rebels and occasional white-collar workers are transforming the site into a highly adaptive and resilient ecosystem. But one thing has not changed. They refuse to be led by anyone, even while in a fight that is ultimately about choosing a leader – just one not vetted by Beijing.

胡平:中共現時的行為邏輯是什麼?(評台)
Andy Xie: Stability will only return when Hong Kong ends its property tyranny (South China Morning Post)

Sky-high property prices are the root cause of the ongoing social instability in Hong Kong. When the average household would have to put aside all their salary for 10 years to afford to buy the space for a bed – never mind eating and drinking, and other living expenses – or that incomes have grown by only 10 per cent in a decade, where is the hope for ordinary people, especially the young? Unless Hong Kong restructures its property market to serve the people, instead of milking them to the last drop, the city won’t see stability again.

Josh Noble: Economic inequality underpins Hong Kong’s great political divide (Financial Times; Text auch verfügbar via [Pen-l])

On Monday CY Leung, Hong Kong chief executive, appeared to confirm protesters’ fears when he warned in an interview with the Financial Times and other foreign media that a fully open voting system would lead to populism by shifting power towards low-earners.
While Hong Kong’s establishment has stressed the importance of protecting the interests of the business community, many in the street believe political change is needed to fix economic imbalances.
“We need to think if Hong Kong should stay an international financial centre and a paradise for global capitalism,” said Rebecca Lai, a 47-year-old NGO worker at a protest site in Mongkok district. “We need to think if this is still good for the citizens.”

Mia Lamar, Fiona Law, Jacky Wong: Hong Kong Police Crackdown Draws Ire (Wall Street Journal)
Emily Tsang, Niall Fraser, Tony Cheung, Jennifer Ngo, Fanny Fung, Jeffie Lam, Lana Lam, Clifford Lo:Image problem for police as video of officers beating protester is beamed around the world (South China Morning Post)

Proteste in Hongkong
Sep 29th, 2014 by Gao

HKCTU strongly condemns the police crackdown of people’s protest by Hong Kong government (HKCTU)

Calling all workers in Hong Kong to participate in a general strike on September 29.
Hong Kong Confederation of Trade Unions(HKCTU) strongly condemns the police for their violent attack on unarmed students and people. We strongly condemn the government for suppressing the freedom of speech and the freedom of assembly in Hong Kong. HKCTU calls for all workers in Hong Kong to strike tomorrow, in protest of the ruling of the National People’s Congress, as well as the brutal suppression of peaceful protest by the Hong Kong government. Workers and students must unite to force the totalitarian government to hand state power back to the people.
Since the peaceful assembly outside the Government Headquarter on September 26th, thousands of people join and support the assembly. The ever growing number of people maintained peace and order. Yet, the police attacked the protestors heavily with pepper spray, baton and riot squads armed with shields and helmets, while people who only had towels and umbrellas to protect themselves. In face of several rounds of suppression, protestors only raised their hands up without fighting back. In the evening of September 28th, the police furthered their attack with several rounds of tear gas. Many peaceful protestors were injured.
Workers must stand up against the unjust government and violent suppression. Workers must stand up, as the totalitarian government has to back down when all workers protest in solidarity. To defend democracy and justice, we cannot let the students fight the suppression alone.
HKCTU hereby announces and calls all workers to participate in a general strike tomorrow.
We demand:
1) Police must release the arrested protestors immediately. They must guarantee the basic human rights of the arrested protestors during retention.
2) The government and police must stop suppressing the peaceful assembly and apologize to the people.
3) National People’s Congress must withdraw the ‘fake universal suffrage’. The Hong Kong government must restart the consultation of political reform. Workers have been demanding a fair election system to rectify the longstanding problem of the business-leaning government. However, the ‘fake universal suffrage’ framework proposed by NPC is merely ‘old wine in a new bottle’.
4) Chief Executive Leung Chun Ying must step down to bear the responsibility of violent suppression of protest.

Tania Branigan, Jonathan Kaiman: Tens of thousands join pro-democracy protest in Hong Kong (Guardian)
Tania Branigan, Jonathan Kaiman: Hong Kong police use teargas and pepper spray to disperse protesters (Guardian)
Tania Branigan: Hong Kong citizens urged to continue protests as police withdraw (Guardian)
Tania Branigan: Hong Kong citizens step up protests as riot police withdrawn (Guardian)
Tania Branigan: Hong Kong surprises itself with the exuberance and spontaneity of protests (Guardian)
Jonathan Kaiman: China censors images of Hong Kong protests in TV broadcasts to mainland (Guardian)
Chris Buckley, Alan Wong: Pro-Democracy Group Shifts to Collaborate With Student Protesters in Hong Kong (New York Times)
Ivan Watson, Elizabeth Joseph, Anjali Tsui, Jethro Mullen: Hong Kong says riot police have pulled back as protesters jam city streets (CNN)
Christoph Prantner: Lostage für China (Standard)
Johnny Erling: Pekings Angst vor der Regenschirm-Revolution (Standard)

Über die Massendemonstrationen von Schülern und Studenten in Hongkong und ihre anhaltende Kampagne, die den zivilen Ungehorsam unterstützt, kursiert ein bunter Begriff: die „Regenschirm-Revolution“. Die kommunistische Führung in Peking, die hinter allen Protestbewegungen die Hand „farbiger“ Revolutionen vermutet, lässt ihn in Chinas Internet strikt zensieren. In Hongkong ist er dennoch zum geflügelten Wort geworden.

APA: Demonstranten blockieren Hongkongs Finanzbezirk (Standard)
反对人大粗暴落闸 既要真普选也要改善民生(劳工世界)/ 25 Unions and Social Groups Demand Universal Suffrage and Economic Betterment (China Labour Net)
Bai Ruixue: The protest movement in Hong Kong is continuing to grow (Europe solidaire sans frontières)
Bai Ruixue: Universal suffrage: Thousands of Hong Kong students hold large pro-democracy rally on the first day of class boycott (Europe solidaire sans frontières)
Hong Kong Pro-Democracy Protesters Clash With Police In Surreal Scenes (Huffington Post)

Prozess gegen Ilⱨam Tohti
Sep 18th, 2014 by Gao

Jonathan Kaiman: China begins trial of Ilham Tohti (Guardian)

Chinese authorities began trying the Uighur academic Ilham Tohti on charges of “separatism” on Wednesday morning, in what human rights groups have called a “travesty of justice” that underscores the government’s unwillingness to field even moderate criticisms of its ethnic policies.
Tohti, 44, is being tried at the Urumqi intermediate court in Urumqi, capital of the Xinjiang Uighur autonomous region, more than 1,800 miles (3,000km) west of his home in Beijing. He will almost certainly be convicted; possible sentences range from 10 years to life in prison. He firmly denies the charge.

Uigurischer Regimekritiker vor chinesischem Gericht (Deutsche Welle)
Johnny Erling: Xinjiang will Uigurenanwalt Tohti zum Terroristen stempeln (Standard)
Johhny Erling: China statuiert Exempel an Bürgerrechtler (Welt)
Edward Wong: Uighur Scholar Ilham Tohti Goes on Trial in China on Separatist Charges (New York Times)

Mr. Tohti had been harshly treated throughout the detention, his lawyers say. “He was never allowed to see his family anytime during the eight months of detention,” Mr. Li said. “He was not allowed to meet with lawyers for the first five months.”
Seven students of Mr. Tohti have also been detained, and some have been formally arrested and charged, the parents of one student said in an interview near the courthouse here. The parents said the police in Urumqi had sent them a notice saying their son was being charged with harming the security of the state. They have been unable to contact him since his arrest in Beijing on Jan. 15, they said.

Separatism trial of Uighur professor in China enters second day (AFP/Yahoo)

Nine diplomats from countries including Germany, Britain and Canada travelled to Urumqi to observe the trial but were barred from entering the courtroom.

ئىلھام توختى سوتتا خىتاي تەپتىش ئەمەلدارىنىڭ بارلىق ئەيىبلەشلىرىنى رەت قىلدى (Radio Free Asia)

ئىلھام توختىنىڭ چارشەنبە كۈنى باشلانغان ئۈرۈمچى شەھەرلىك ئوتتۇرا سوت مەھكىمىسىدىكى سوتىنىڭ تۇنجى كۈنى، تەپتىش ئەمەلدارى ئۆزىنىڭ ئەيىبنامىسىنى ئوقۇپ ئۆتۈپ، ئىلھامنى «دۆلەتنى پارچىلاشقا»، «شىنجاڭنى مۇستەقىل قىلىشقا» ئۇرۇنۇش بىلەن ئەيىبلىگەن ۋە بۇ قارىشىنى ئىلگىرى سۈرىدىغان «پاكىتلار» نى ئوتتۇرىغا قويغان. تەپتىش ئەمەلدارى ئەيىبنامىسىدە، ئىلھام توختىنىڭ بۇرۇنقى ئوقۇغۇچىلىرىنىڭ «گۇۋاھلىق» سۆزلىرىنى پاكىت قىلىپ كۆرسىتىپ، بۇنى ئىلھامنىڭ بۆلگۈنچىلىك بىلەن شۇغۇللانغانلىقىنىڭ ئىسپاتى قىلىپ ئوتتۇرىغا قويغان. لېكىن ئىلھام توختىنىڭ ئادۋوكاتى لى فاڭپىڭ ئۇنىڭ ئۆزىگە قارىتىلغان بارلىق ئەيىبلەشنى رەت قىلىدىغانلىقىنى بىلدۈردى.

Timeline of Ilham Tohti’s Case (Human Rights Watch)

Thomas Latschan: Ilham Tohti – der leise Kritiker (Deutsche Welle)

An der Minzu-Universität in Peking untersuchte Tohti unter anderem über mehrere Jahre die soziale Lage der Uiguren in seiner Heimatprovinz Xinjiang. Dabei kam er zu dem Ergebnis, dass die Uiguren in Xinjiang keineswegs den Han-Chinesen gleichgestellt sind. Im Gegenteil: Für Uiguren gebe es weniger Arbeitsplätze, sie würden für die gleiche Arbeit schlechter bezahlt und von den chinesischen Behörden systematisch benachteiligt.
Nach den Unruhen von 2009 wurden die Sicherheitsmaßnahmen in der Provinz Xinjiang massiv verschärft
Wiederholt kritisierte Tohti die Politik der Zentralregierung gegenüber den Uiguren. Im Gegensatz zu anderen uigurischen Regimekritikern – wie der mittlerweile in den USA lebenden Rebiyah Kadeer – gilt er als gemäßigter Regimekritiker, der immer für eine bessere Verständigung zwischen Uiguren und Han-Chinesen geworben hat.

Celia Hatton: Is Ilham Tohti friend or foe of China? (BBC)

So, is Ilham Tohti really a moderate? It depends who you ask.
China’s mission to the EU appears not to think so.
The mission said in August that Mr Tohti had been „personally involved“ in orchestrating two episodes of violence in Xinjiang, diplomatic sources have told the BBC.

Uyghur Scholar Tohti ‚Humiliated‘ in Prison, Shackled Again (Radio Free Asia)
Reuters: Uighur academic held on separatism charges in China kept in shackles (Guardian)

Lawyer for economics professor Ilham Tohti says his client has also been denied warm clothes ahead of his trial this week…
„We intend to send somebody to the trial,“ the EU ambassador to China, Hans Dietmar Schweisgut, told reporters when asked if the EU would dispatch a diplomat to Urumqi even if China did not respond to its request to allow an observer in court.

ئىلھام توختىنىڭ ئايالى گۈزەلنۇر ۋە قېرىنداشلىرى سوتقا قاتنىشىش ئۈچۈن ئۈرۈمچىگە يېتىپ كەلدى (Radio Free Asia)
ئىلھام توختى سوتلانغان كۈنى ئامېرىكا ئەلچىسى ئۈرۈمچىگە كەلگەن (Radio Free Asia)
خەلقئارا جەمئىيەت ۋە قانۇنچىلار ئىلھام توختىنىڭ سوتىغا يېقىندىن كۆڭۈل بۆلمەكتە (Radio Free Asia)

3. Plenum des XVIII. Zentralkomitees (Fortsetzung)
Nov 15th, 2013 by Gao

Offizielle Dokumente:
中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定(全文)(人民网)
习近平关于《中共中央关于全面深化改革若干重大问题的决定》的说明(人民网)
Sammlung:
学习贯彻党的十八届三中全会精神(人民网)

Heiko hat dies publiziert:
Heiko Khoo: Upholding public ownership at the 3rd plenum (China.org.cn)

As the Third Plenary Session of the 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) prepared to meet, Western China experts expressed their hopes for a „capitalist style“ reform agenda. The standard cries for an end to the leading role of state-owned enterprises were at the centre of this agenda.

Und später noch dies:
Heiko Khoo: After the Third Plenum – A look into the future (China.org.cn)

The theory of the primary stage of socialism adopted by the CPC in 1987 projected it would last for 100 years from 1949. By 2049 workers will constitute a crushing majority of China’s population. They will be highly skilled and educated, and will be connected with workers around the world. China will be the richest country in the world and its workers will have high per capita incomes. If, at that time, the workers democratically control production and are the real masters of the state; and if society is based on egalitarian principles — then socialism will surely conquer the world.

Und er wies auf diesen Artikel hin:
Xinhua: China reforms to deepen (China.org.cn)

The 18th Central Committee of the Communist Party of China (CPC) on Tuesday approved a decision on „major issues concerning comprehensively deepening reforms“ at the close of their four-day meeting. …#Economic reform is key, and the core solution is the proper relationship between the government and the market, leaving the market to play the decisive role in allocation of resources and the government to play a better role, it said. …
China will stick to the dominant role of public ownership, playing the leading role of the state-owned economy, while encouraging, supporting and guiding the non-public sector, enhancing its vitality and creativity, it said.

Ein knapper Kommentar zur Position der japanischen KP (Nihon Kyōsantō):
日本共產黨擬否定中國為社會主義國家(香港電台)

擁有約30萬成員的日本共產黨,會於明年初的黨中央全會通過決議案,否定中國為「社會主義國家」。日本新聞網報道,黨委員長志位和夫會在政治報告中,將中國形容為「未達到社會主義的國家」,以體現日共與中共不同。有關報告會在中央全會上表決。

Thomas hat diesen Link geschickt:
Minxin Pei: Beherzte Reformen als Nagelprobe in China (Standard)

Vorerst haben sich Xis Antikorruptionsbemühungen im Konventionellen erschöpft und nur selektive Strafverfolgung ermöglicht. Angesichts der wohlbekannten Unfähigkeit der chinesischen Zentralregierung, ihre Politik auf lokaler Ebene umzusetzen und angesichts der engmaschigen Netzwerke der Patronage in den Provinzen und Städten, ist es unrealistisch, dass die gegenwärtige Antikorruptionskampagne si­gnifikant bessere Ergebnisse liefert als bereits vergangene. …
Im Vergleich zu zwei bahnbrechenden chinesischen Wirtschaftsreformen in der Vergangenheit, jener von 1978 und jener von 1992, steht Xi vor einem anderen Umfeld und einer viel schwierigeren Herausforderung. Die Gegner der Reformen Den Xiaopings waren von Ideologie getrieben, sie hatten keine persönlichen Beteiligungen in der maoistischen Wirtschaft. Um sie zu besiegen, war eine Koalition in der Partei nötig, ein Diskreditieren der kommunistischen Ideologie und die unbedingte Unterstützung des Volkes. All das brachte Den Xiaoping zustande.
Heute profitieren die Mitglieder der regierenden Elite im Vergleich direkt und immens von der staatlich dominierten Wirtschaft.

Weitere Artikel:
Cheng Li: Preparing For the 18th Party Congress: Procedures and Mechanisms (PDF; China Leadership Monitor)
Rainer Rupp: Ritt auf dem Tiger (junge Welt)

Gigantisches Wirtschaftswachstum, Werkstatt der Welt, Exportchampion und eine Fülle von Problemen: Chinas Parteiführung versucht, dem Kapitalismus neue Zügel anzulegen.

Xinhua: Why the CPC’s third plenary session is important (人民网)
Bob Davis: Beijing Endorses Market Role in Economy (Wall Street Journal)
Cary Huang: Party’s third plenum pledges ‚decisive role‘ for markets in China’s economy (South China Morning Post)
Jonathan Fenby: Xi Jinping has a plan to change China’s economy – at his own pace (Guardian)

Petra Kolonko: Von den Amerikanern lernen, heißt … (Frankfurter Allgemeine)

Peking will – offenbar nach Vorbild der sonst geschmähten Vereinigten Staaten – einen „Nationalen Sicherheitsrat“ bilden. Darin sollen Experten für Außen-, Verteidigungs- und Wirtschaftspolitik vertreten sein.

Jonathan Kaiman: China to loosen one-child policy and abolish labour camps (Guardian)
Peter Lee: Controlling the media is Xi’s message (Asia Times)

Instead of using the communique of the Third Plenum of the Chinese Communist Party’s Central Committee to make rallying cries for greater control, President and General Secretary Xi Jinping plans to use the party apparatus to pursue particularism over universality. Rather than the greater transparency the West expects, his administration will shrink the already limited reach of domestic and international media and take „ownership“ of local and national stories.

David Barboza, Jessica Silver-Greenberg, Ben Protess: JPMorgan’s Fruitful Ties to a Member of China’s Elite (New York Times)

To promote its standing in China, JPMorgan Chase turned to a seemingly obscure consulting firm run by a 32-year-old executive named Lily Chang.
Ms. Chang’s firm, which received a $75,000-a-month contract from JPMorgan, appeared to have only two employees. And on the surface, Ms. Chang lacked the influence and public name recognition needed to unlock business for the bank.
But what was known to JPMorgan executives in Hong Kong, and some executives at other major companies, was that “Lily Chang” was not her real name. It was an alias for Wen Ruchun, the only daughter of Wen Jiabao, who at the time was China’s prime minister, with oversight of the economy and its financial institutions.

Bo Xilai | XIX. Parteitag | Arbeitslager
Jul 25th, 2013 by Gao

Keith Zhai: Bo Xilai indicted in corruption case, trial may start next month (South China Morning Post)

Prosecutors in the eastern city of Jinan in Shandong province indicted Bo on the charges on Thursday, Xinhua news agency said, although it did not give a timeframe for the trial.
“The accused Bo Xilai, as a civil servant, took advantage of the privileges of his office to gain benefits for others and illegally received money and items in extremely large amounts,” Xinhua quoted the indictment as saying.
It said Bo also “embezzled an extremely large amount of public funds and abused his powers of office, causing heavy losses to the interests of the nation and the people in an extremely serious way”.
Bo’s charges could include accepting bribes of 20 million yuan (HK$25.1 million), embezzling another five million yuan and abusing his power, according to independent sources with knowledge of internal meetings held on Tuesday in Chongqing and other cities.

Tania Branigan, Rory Carroll: Bo Guagua speaks up for disgraced father Bo Xilai (Guardian)
Tania Branigan: China prepares for power handover but reverberations will be felt worldwide (Guardian)
Jonathan Kaiman: China congress: toy helicopters and pigeons vanish in security crackdown (Guardian)

While the Chinese government often boosts security during sensitive political meetings, measures surrounding the forthcoming congress border on extreme: Authorities have placed restrictions on buying remote-controlled helicopters, warned cab drivers to child-lock their doors, and instructed pigeon-fanciers to keep their birds caged.

AP: Chinese court verdict strikes blow against labour camp system (Guardian)

Tang Hui to get compensation for sentence after demanding stricter penalty for men who raped her 11-year-old daughter

Foxconn | Ghana | Nikaraguakanal
Jun 11th, 2013 by Gao

Rutvica Andrijašević, Devi Sacchetto: China may be far away but Foxconn is on our doorstep (Open Democracy)

Drawing on support from permissive governments, multinational manufacturer Foxconn has set up shop in Central Europe. Yet the transitory nature of the many migrant workers employed in these factories will have serious consequences for the future of labour in Europe.

Jonathan Kaiman, Afua Hirsch: Ghana arrests 168 Chinese nationals in illegal mining crackdown (Guardian)

The arrests follow a series of pit collapses in which dozens of Ghanaian illegal miners have died, raising concern about the prevalence of the practice in Africa’s second-largest gold producer after South Africa. … The South China Morning Post estimates that more than 50,000 Chinese goldminers have been to Ghana since 2005, two-thirds of them from Shanglin, an impoverished county in southern Guangxi province where news of the gold rush spread by word of mouth.

Jonathan Watts: Nicaragua gives Chinese firm contract to build alternative to Panama Canal (Guardian)

Nicaragua has awarded a Chinese company a 100-year concession to build an alternative to the Panama Canal, in a step that looks set to have profound geopolitical ramifications. The … project … will reinforce Beijing’s growing influence on global trade and weaken US dominance over the key shipping route between the Pacific and Atlantic oceans. … Under the initial plans for the project, the government was expected to be the majority shareholder, with construction taking 10 years and the first ship passing through the canal within six years. It is unclear if this is still the case.

Foxconn-Streik | China 3.0 | Nánfāng zhōumò | Afrika | Korea
Jan 17th, 2013 by Gao

Strike erupted over dire working conditions at Foxconn (Sacom)
Jennifer Cheung: As economy picks up China’s workers start to demand higher wages (China Labour Bulletin)

Mark Leonard (Hg.): China 3.0 (European Council on Foreign Relations)

Jonathan Kaiman: China’s Southern Weekly newspaper reappears after censorship standoff (Guardian)
Brian Spegele, Paul Mozur: As Southern Weekly Debate Continues, Foreigners Blamed (Wall Street Journal)

Deborah Bräutigam: Is US FDI to Africa more transparent than China’s? (China in Africa)

Rüdiger Frank: Changes in North Korea: For Better or Worse? (38 North)

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