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Ungleichheit, Armut und Armutsbekämpfung
Jul 6th, 2018 by Gao

Facundo Alvaredo, Lucas Chancel, Thomas Piketty, Emmanuel Saez, Gabriel Zucman: Global Inequality Dynamics: New Findings from WID.world (American Economic Review, Mai 2017)

Rising inequality has attracted considerable interest in recent years, as shown by the attention received by an academic book published by one of us (Piketty 2014). Yet we still face important limitations in our ability to measure the changing distribution of income and wealth, within and between countries and at the world level. In this paper, we present new findings about global inequality dynamics from the World Wealth and Income Database (WID.world). We start with a brief history of the WID.world project. We then present selected findings on income inequality, private versus public wealth-to-income ratios, and wealth inequality, with emphasis on the contrast between the trends in the United States, China, France, and the United Kingdom…

Rob Schmitz: Xi Jinping’s War On Poverty Moves Millions Of Chinese Off The Farm (NPR, 19. Oktober 2017)

China’s government hopes city life will push tens of millions into the workforce on their way to joining the world’s largest middle class. In the first five years of Xi’s presidency, more than 60 million Chinese have risen above the poverty line; Xi wants to move 70 million more Chinese above that line within the next three years, a goal China’s government is more tightly focused on than ever. …
[O]fficials in Guizhou … plan to move more than 750,000 people off farms by the end of the year from nearly 3,600 villages.

(Es gibt einen Eugene K. Chow, der Redenschreiber für den New Yorker Bürgermeister Bill de Blasio war.)
Eugene K. Chow: China’s War on Poverty Could Hurt the Poor Most (Foreign Policy, 8. Jänner 2018)

The government is pushing people out of rural squalor — and into urban dependence.

Spencer Sheehan: China’s Hukou Reforms and the Urbanization Challenge (The Diplomat, 22. Feber 2018)

China is speeding up hukou reform, but that won’t be enough to solve the migrant worker problem.
China’s government has announced a lofty goal of expanding urban hukou or residency permits to 100 million migrant workers by 2020 as part of its plan to rebalance its economy. However, the government needs to deliver a whole range of supporting policies to achieve this goal and it may not have the financing to provide them.

Philip Alston: Report of the [UN] Special Rapporteur on extreme poverty and human rights on his mission to China (PDF; 28. März 2017)

The achievements that China has made in alleviating poverty have been extraordinary. Its leadership has made a strong and genuine commitment to building a “moderately prosperous society” free of extreme poverty, thus showing political will that is impressive and all too uncommon in today’s world…
While China has done a huge amount to promote economic and social wellbeing, this has not yet been translated into an approach based on treating economic and social rights as human rights.

Javier C. Hernández: Xi Jinping Vows No Poverty in China by 2020. That Could Be Hard. (New York Times, 31. Oktober 2017)

Nearly seven decades after the Chinese Communist Party rose to power on a promise of prosperity for all, President Xi Jinping has vowed to fulfill the Communists’ original intent, staking his legacy on an ambitious plan to complete the eradication of rural poverty by 2020…
Even as Chinese cities have turned into playgrounds for the nouveau riche and the swelling ranks of the middle class, nearly 500 million people, or about 40 percent of China’s population, live on less than $5.50 per day, according to the World Bank.
“The whole idea of socialism was that all Chinese would have a reasonable living standard,” said Kerry Brown, a China scholar at King’s College London. “The nagging concern is that the Communist Party has created billionaires and a strong middle class, and yet there are still a lot of poor people. That seems to be a massive contradiction.”

Ein wichtiger Diskussionsbeitrag in diesem Zusammenhang:
Felix Wemheuer: Auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus? Kritische Anmerkungen zu den Unterstützern der heutigen KP China in der westlichen Linken (Kommunistische Debatte)

Seit dem Ende der Kulturrevolution 1976 und dem Niedergang der westeuropäischen ML-Bewegung haben sich viele Linke lange nicht mehr für die Entwicklung in China interessiert. In den letzten 15 Jahren häufen sich allerdings linke Publikationen zum Charakter der Volksrepublik. Mittlerweile ist China eine politische und wirtschaftliche Großmacht. Während mit dem chinesischen „Wirtschaftswunder“ im Westen lange nur Sweatshops und Billigwaren verbunden wurden, investiert das chinesische Kapital heute auf allen Kontinenten. Selbst in Deutschland kauft es im großen Stil Unternehmen auf. Laut den Plänen der chinesischen Regierung soll die VR zum 100. Jahrestag ihrer Gründung, 2049, ein hochentwickeltes Industrieland sein. „Der Spiegel“ rief sogar die westliche Welt dazu auf, endlich aufzuwachen, da China schon jetzt die Nummer Eins sei. Die gegenwärtige Verschiebung der globalen Machtverhältnisse können auch Linke in Europa nicht ignorieren. Allerdings gehen die Einschätzungen zum Charakter der VR weit auseinander: Theodor Bergmann sieht das Land auf dem Weg zum Sozialismus (…). Der bekannte marxistische Geograph David Harvey hingegen reihte 2005 auf dem Titelbild seines Buches „Kleine Geschichte des Neoliberalismus“ Deng Xiaoping in eine wenig schmeichelhafte Ahnengalerie zusammen mit Ronald Reagan, Margaret Thatcher und dem chilenischen Diktator Augusto Pinochet ein.

Kulturrevolution
Aug 28th, 2016 by Gao

Grassroots Factionalism in China’s Cultural Revolution: Rethinking the Paradigm (H-PRC)

Discussants: Felix Wemheuer (University of Cologne), Andrew Walder (Stanford University), Jonathan Unger (Australian National University), Joel Andreas (Johns Hopkins University), Yiching Wu (University of Toronto)
Notes from a roundtable at the Annual Meeting of the Association for Asian Studies, Seattle March 2016
In the 1980s, Western scholars developed a powerful paradigm to explain mass political factionalism in Mao’s Cultural Revolution (1966-69) in rational terms, rather than portraying the movement as mere “madness.” They explained mass factionalism as the escalation of latent conflicts between groups from different social backgrounds and with different political interests in the period before the Cultural Revolution. This influential paradigm has since been challenged from several angles, most prominently by Andrew Walder in his book Fractured Rebellion: The Beijing Red Guard Movement (Harvard University Press, 2009). Walder and several other scholars have argued that the roles of social background and ideological differences in explaining factional divisions have been exaggerated, and that contingent events and instrumental interests were far more important. The aim of this discussion is to bring new light to this debate. How was grassroots factionalism linked to conflicts at higher levels? How did the social and political backgrounds of participants impact factional participation? Did different interpretations of Maoist ideology matter? Were ordinary participants fighting mainly to avoid the consequences of defeat?

Paul Clark: What is cultural about the Cultural Revolution? Creativity Amid Destruction (SupChina)

Paul Clark discusses the films, plays, operas, ballets, architecture and other creative works in China during the Cultural Revolution.

Walmart-Streik | Mao-Biografien | Auslandsaufklärung | Yanhuang Chunqiu
Jul 28th, 2016 by Gao

Nandita Bose: U.S. and Chinese labor groups collaborated before China Wal-Mart strikes (Reuters)

OUR Walmart, the American worker group, has taken the unusual step of collaborating with a group of Chinese Wal-Mart workers trying to fight work schedule changes and low wages.
OUR Walmart and the Wal-Mart Chinese Workers Association (WCWA) discussed strategy for recent strikes in China on a Skype call last month using a translator

Statement from Hong Kong labour groups on the prosecution of labour activists in Guangdong (Globalization Monitor)

Guangdong labour activists Zeng Feiyang, Meng Han, Zhu Xiaomei and Tang Huanxing, who were arrested by Chinese police on 3rd December, 2015, were charged with “disturbing social order” by the People’s Procuratorate of Panyu District, Guangzhou Municipality in June and will be on trial in the near future.
In the December incident, more than 50 activists were interrogated and seven were detained or went missing. This prosecution is part of President Xi’s crackdown on labour activists and gravely threatens the survival of civil society in China.

Letzte Woche fand am Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften der Universität Wien eine Konferenz mit dem Titel „Mao Zedong: Exploring Multi-Dimensional Approaches to Biography“ statt. Unter den Teilnehmer_innen waren u.a. die Autor_innen von Mao-Biografien Jīn Chōngjí 金冲及 (Máo Zédōng zhuàn 《毛泽东传》, 6 Bde.), Alexander V. Pantsov (Александр Вадимович Панцов: Мао Цзэдун. 2007, ²2012; englische Übersetzung von Steven I. Levine: Mao. The Real Story. 2012.) und Felix Wemheuer (Mao Zedong. 2010.). Auch Susanne Weigelin-Schwiedrzik und Helwig Schmidt-Glintzer arbeiten jeweils an einer Mao-Biografie.
Burkhard Bischof: Die Entschlüsselung des „Großen Steuermanns“ Mao Zedong (Presse)

Fionnuala McHugh: What drives Frank Dikötter, chronicler of China’s insanity? (South China Morning Post)

Chinese thief of US military secrets given four years‘ jail (Guardian)

A Chinese businessman who admitted taking part in the hacking of US defence secrets has been given nearly four years’ jail.
Su Bin, 51, was convicted of taking part in a years-long scheme by Chinese military officers to obtain sensitive military information, targeting projects including the F-22 and F-35 fighter jets and Boeing’s C-17 military transport aircraft.

Chinese wegen Cyberspionage in den USA zu Haftstrafe verurteilt (Standard)

Wegen Cyberspionage bei US-Rüstungsfirmen ist ein Chinese zu drei Jahre und zehn Monaten Haft verurteilt worden. Der 51-jährige Su Bin muss außerdem 10.000 Dollar (9.000 Euro) Strafe zahlen, wie ein Gericht in Los Angeles am Mittwoch entschied.

Johnny Erling: Feindliche Übernahme von Chinas liberalem Reformmagazin (Standard)

2014 war auf Anweisung des Propagandaministeriums die Nationalakademie zum Aufpasser der Zeitschrift ernannt worden. Sie sollte die „Yanhuang Chunqiu“ disziplinieren. Weil die sich aber redaktionell nicht dreinreden ließ, blieb nun nur die Übernahme.

Kulturrevolution – Fellner, Brown, Wemheuer, Mai/Chou, Rittenberg, Wasserstrom
Mai 15th, 2016 by Gao

Hannes Fellner: »Rebellion ist gerechtfertigt« (junge Welt)

Die »Große Proletarische Kulturrevolution« war ein Zeitabschnitt in der Geschichte der Volksrepublik China, der widersprüchlicher nicht sein konnte. Die Kulturrevolution stand und steht gleichzeitig für Voluntarismus und diktatorische Maßnahmen von den um Mao Zedong versammelten Kadern der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh), aber auch für eine partizipative und demokratische Massenbewegung. Sie stand und steht gleichzeitig für gesellschaftliches Chaos und Not, aber auch für ökonomischen, sozialen und kulturellen Fortschritt, welcher die Grundlagen für den Wirtschaftsboom des Landes ab den späten 1970er Jahren legte. Sie stand und steht gleichzeitig für Chinas Besinnung nach innen und seine internationale Isolation, aber auch für den Beginn seines Aufstiegs zur Weltmacht.

Ian Johnson: Jeremy Brown on the Cultural Revolution at the Grass Roots | 50周年纪念之外,被忽略的文革历史 (New York Times)

Jeremy Brown, 39, a history professor at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, studied in Harbin and did research in Tianjin, focusing especially on the rural-urban divide in China under Mao Zedong. Most recently, he helped edit “Maoism at the Grassroots: Everyday Life in China’s Era of High Socialism.” In an interview, he discussed the 50th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution, what we miss in elite-focused narratives from that time and his pursuit of flea-market historiography.

Felix Wemheuer: 50 Jahre Kulturrevolution: Der Kampf geht weiter (Deutsche Welle)

50 Jahre nach dem Ausbruch der „Großen Proletarischen Kulturrevolution“ [hat] die chinesische Gesellschaft noch immer keinen Konsens gefunden, wie Maos Massenbewegung zu beurteilen ist.

Felix Wemheuer: Kulturrevolution und die Neue Linke im Westen (Deutsche Welle)
Jun Mai, Oliver Chou: Cultural Revolution, 50 years on (South China Morning Post)

Fifty years ago today, China issued a top directive calling on its people to rid society of “members of the bourgeoisie threatening to seize political power from the proletariat” – marking the start of a decade-long violent class struggle.
For 10 tumultuous years from 1966, the country underwent massive sociopolitical upheaval that saw countless politicians and intellectuals driven to their deaths, civilians killed in armed conflicts, and cultural relics and artefacts destroyed. The official death toll numbered more than 1.7 million.

Wen Liu: Sidney Rittenberg on Cultural Revolution 50 years later, its violence, its lessons (WA China Watch Digest)

This website was not meant to be this political. But one cannot watch China and skip a historic date, May 16, the 50th anniversary of the official start of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976, which served as perhaps more than anything dark, scorched, bloody yet fertile soil for, as well as a huge rear-view mirror of, today’s China of skyscrapers, bullet trains, Xi Jinping, and even Internet censorship. One cannot also watch China and forget that it was in 1972, during the Cultural Revolution, that President Nixon went to meet Mao in Beijing. To help us reflect on the Cultural Revolution, its meaning, its violence, its lessons, there is no better person than a great fellow Washingtonian, journalist, scholar, a participant as well as a prisoner of not only the Cultural Revolution, but for 35 years Mao’s revolution: Sidney Rittenberg.

Jeffrey Wasserstrom: How Will China Mark the 50th Anniversary of the Cultural Revolution? (Nation)

This month marks the anniversary of two surges of youth activism in China. One, the May 4 Movement, began with student protests 97 years ago. The other is the 50th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution, which is sometimes said to have begun with the first Red Guards putting up wall posters in late May of 1966. May 4 and Red Guard activists were once seen as part of related movements, but now they tend to be regarded as radically dissimilar.

Workshop: Zur Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in China (Nachschau)
Mrz 14th, 2014 by Gao

Workshop: Zur Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in China (Universität Wien)
Samstag, 22. Februar 2014, 9–17 Uhr, Amerlinghaus Stiftgasse 8, 1070 Wien. Mit Can Cui, Hermann Dworczak, Daniel Fuchs, Rolf Geffken, Thomas Immervoll und Felix Wemheuer. Eine Veranstaltung der China Study Group Europe mit Unterstützung der Marx-Engels-Stiftung (Wuppertal), von transform!europe und transform!at.

Zur Lage der arbeitenden Klasse in China 中国工人阶级状况

Videoaufnahmen einiger Vorträge jetzt auf YouTube:

  • Thomas Immervoll: Die Fragmentierung der Arbeiter_innenklasse in China – Zur Entwicklung des Arbeitsmarktes und des informellen Sektors (YouTube)
  • Can Cui: WanderarbeiterInnen der zweiten Generation (YouTube)
  • Hermann Dworczak: Chinesische ArbeiterInnenklasse und Weltproletariat (YouTube)
  • Rolf Geffken: Neue Arbeits- und Sozialgesetze – emanzipatorisches Potenzial? (YouTube)
  • Felix Wemheuer: Die Dynamik der Protestbewegungen 1956/1957, 1967/1968 und 1989 (YouTube)
  • Heiko Khoo: Die Arbeiterklasse und der widersprüchliche Charakter des Staates (YouTube)
  • Heiko Khoo hat ein Interview mit Theodor Bergmann veröffentlicht:
    Heiko Khoo: Theodor Bergmann: A revolutionary communist since 1927 (China.org.cn)

    Workshop in Wien: Unser eigener Schatten der Kulturrevolution
    Okt 10th, 2012 by Gao

    Sascha Klotzbücher: Unser eigener Schatten der Kulturrevolution: Transgenerationelle Deutungsmuster und die affektiven Grundlagen der heutigen chinesischen Gesellschaft (Universität Wien)
    Welche Bedeutung hat die Kulturrevolution für die heutige Gesellschaft Chinas?

    Workshop in Wien: Geschichte von unten
    Okt 4th, 2012 by Gao

    Workshop “How to write a People’s History of Maoist China” (PDF; Sinologie, Universität Wien)

    Internet-Hinweis: listserv (at) list.msu.edu / prchistory (at) list.msu.edu / readingtherevolution.uchicago.edu

    Literaturhinweise und Buchempfehlungen:

    Howard Zinn: A People’s History of the United Staters. 1980, zahlreiche Neuauflagen.
    Andrea Komlosy, Hannes Hofbauer: Das andere Österreich. Vom Aufbegehren der kleinen Leute. Geschichten aus vier Jahrhunderten. Promedia, Wien, 1987.
    Robert Foltin: Und wir bewegen uns doch: Soziale Bewegungen in Österreich. edition grundrisse, Wien, 2004.
    Jürgen Kuczynski: Geschichte des Alltags des deutschen Volkes. 5 Bände, Pahl-Rugenstein, 1980 (?).

    Matthias Middell, Felix Wemheuer (Hg): Hunger and Scarcity under State-Socialism. Leipziger Universitätsverlag, Leipzig, 2012.
    Neil Diamant: Embattled Glory. Veterans, Military Families, and the Politics of Patriotism in China, 1949-2007. Rowman & Littlefield, 2010.
    Hauke Neddermann: Sozialismus in Xinjiang. Das Produktions- und Aufbaukorps in den 1950er Jahren (Berliner China-Studien). Lit Verlag, 2010.
    Yiching Wu: Revolution at the Margins. Social Protest and the Politics of Class in the Chinese Cultural Revolution, 1966-1968. Forthcoming.
    Maurice Meisner: Mao’s China and After. A History of the People’s Republic. ³1999.
    Joel Andreas: Rise of the Red Engineers. The Cultural Revolution and the Origins of China’s New Class. Stanford University Press, 2009.
    Ralph Thaxton: Catastrophe and Contention in Rural China. Mao’s Great Leap Forward Famine and the Origins of Righteous Resistance in Da Fo Village. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

    《中国少数民族社会历史调查》
    《农村调查》
    《民俗文化调查》

    Klaus Mehnert: Textsammlung zu 省无联; Prasenjit Duara (প্রসেনজিৎ দুৱঁৰা); György Konrád; 莫言:《生死疲劳》、《蛙》Berthold Unfried: Ich bekenne《; 莫言:《生死疲劳》、《青蛙》; 王绍光; Bill Hinton: 《翻身》、《深翻》

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