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Maoisten
Apr 12th, 2017 by Gao

Brian Hioe: A Red Star Over China? (New Bloom) 丘琦欣:紅星照耀中國?(破土)

Perhaps one of the most significant intellectual formations operating in today’s world, China’s New Left arose in the 1990s in opposition to the turn of China away from a centrally planned economy and a return to free market principles after the Deng Xiaoping period. More broadly, the New Left project emphasizes the growing disparities between rural and urban areas in post-Deng China, the sacrifice of principles of equality in order to drive toward development, and calls for a critical revaluation of China’s Maoist legacy in light of China’s present—inclusive of the Great Leap Forward and the Cultural Revolution.
What is “New Left” is hard to pin down. The name “New Left” was a term appropriated from conservative critics who were quick to claim the New Left to be some form of resurgent Red Guard fanaticism. In that sense, “New Left” may be a misleading term, insofar as the Chinese New Left is a contemporary phenomenon, and one with little to do with the western New Left of the late 1960s. The New Left largely consists of academics, many of which have studied abroad and are influenced by forms of western critical theory. The New Left finds itself in opposition to the “Liberals” who welcome China’s capitalization and call for the institution of western style political reforms along the lines of America or of western European powers.

中國的新左派可說是當代世界中最重要的知識分子群體之一,他們在 1990 年代因為反對中國在鄧小平時代過後放棄計畫經濟,轉向自由市場原理而竄起。更大程度上,新左派的研究課題著重於後鄧小平時期城鄉差距的持續擴大,以及為求發展而犧牲平等原則,並呼籲對毛澤東時代的遺產進行批判性再評價以回應當前局勢,其中包括大躍進和文化大革命。
   「新左派」究竟是什麼,其實很難明確定義。「新左派」一名取自於那些急於將新左派定性為某種紅衛兵狂熱再現的保守派批評者。照那樣說來,「新左派」這個詞恐怕會產生誤導,因為中國的新左派是個當代現象,和 1960 年代晚期西方的新左派幾乎毫無關聯。新左派的成員大多是學者,其中很多人都曾出國留學,受到各種西方批判理論影響。新左派與歡迎中國走向資本主義化,呼籲依照美國及西歐強國的路線進行西方式政治改革的「自由派」彼此對立。

Brian Hioe: Anti-Capitalist Within China, Imperialist Outside of China? (New Bloom) 丘琦欣:中國國內的反資本主義者,出了境外卻是帝國主義者?(破土)

From a left perspective, the Chinese New Left’s critique of capitalism remains quite sympathetic when confined to within China’s borders. With the recent arrest of labor activists in Guangzhou, Chinese New Left publication Ground Breaking, for example, was one of the first to rally for support—even at risk to itself. Ground Breaking has reacted similarly in past incidents in which the Chinese state acts on behalf of capital and against the interests of the working class. Perhaps in this respect, given the threat of state suppression, they are to be praised for their bravery on certain issues. It is the New Left’s international viewpoints, concerning outside of China, which may ultimately be most problematic.

從左翼觀點來看,新左派對資本主義的批判多少還是能引人共鳴的,只要它的適用範圍限於中國國內。比方說,近日多位勞工運動者在廣州被逮捕之後,中國新左派的網刊「破土」(Ground Breaking,GB)是首先發動聲援的,卻不顧自身同樣面臨風險。而在過去幾次中國政府為資本利益護航,侵害工人階級利益的事件之中,「破土」也採取了同樣的行動。或許就這點來說,考慮到國家鎮壓的威脅,他們確實應當為了勇於聲援某些議題而得到讚揚。可是新左派的國際主義觀點一旦涉及境外議題,恐怕就再令人存疑不過了。

Chris Buckley: Maoists for Trump? In China, Fans Admire His Nationalist Views (New York Times) 储百亮:特朗普的出现让中国毛左为之一振(New York Times)

They protest, picket and sing to defend Mao’s memory, yearning for the East to be red again. But lately some of China’s Maoists are finding inspiration in an unlikely insurgent in the West: Donald J. Trump.
Mr. Trump “has torn up the old rules of the ruling elites, not just of the capitalist West,” said Zhang Hongliang, a polemicist who is the loudest proponent of what could be loosely called “Maoists for Trump.” In a recent essay, Mr. Zhang lauded the American president as being alone among national leaders daring “to openly promote the political ideas of Chairman Mao.”
President Xi Jinping of China will be sizing up Mr. Trump during a visit to his Mar-a-Lago estate in Florida this week, in the leaders’ first summit meeting. Meanwhile, many ordinary Chinese people have also been taking the measure of the new American president and have been bewildered, incensed and yet, sometimes, inspired.
The global wave of nationalist, anti-establishment sentiment that Mr. Trump rode to power has washed ashore in China, encouraging a hard-left fringe that is hostile to capitalism and Western influence, and that the Communist Party has long sought to cultivate — and contain.

北京——他们用抗议、纠察和歌唱来捍卫对毛泽东的记忆,渴望再现东方红。但最近,让中国的一些毛派人士为之一振的,是西方世界里的一个出人意料的叛逆者:唐纳德·J·特朗普(Donald J. Trump)。
   特朗普“不仅撕裂了西方资本主义世界的旧有规则,还撕裂了统治精英的旧有规则,”能言善辩的“拥护特朗普的毛派”中坚力量张宏良说。在前不久的一篇文章里,张宏良称赞特朗普是唯一一位“敢于公开宣传毛主席政治理念”的国家领导人。
   中美首脑首次峰会于下周在佛罗里达州马阿拉歌庄园举行之际,到访的中国国家主席习近平将对特朗普作出评估。与此同时,很多普通的中国人也在掂量新上台的美国总统的斤两,他或许让他们困惑,或许激起了他们的怒火,但有时也能让他们感到振奋。
   把特朗普送上了权力巅峰的民族主义和反建制情绪正在全球泛滥,中国也不例外。这种潮流让敌视资本主义和西方影响的中国极左派人士受到了鼓励,他们是共产党一直在培育——以及限制——的一个边缘群体。

Kulturrevolution – Fellner, Brown, Wemheuer, Mai/Chou, Rittenberg, Wasserstrom
Mai 15th, 2016 by Gao

Hannes Fellner: »Rebellion ist gerechtfertigt« (junge Welt)

Die »Große Proletarische Kulturrevolution« war ein Zeitabschnitt in der Geschichte der Volksrepublik China, der widersprüchlicher nicht sein konnte. Die Kulturrevolution stand und steht gleichzeitig für Voluntarismus und diktatorische Maßnahmen von den um Mao Zedong versammelten Kadern der Kommunistischen Partei Chinas (KPCh), aber auch für eine partizipative und demokratische Massenbewegung. Sie stand und steht gleichzeitig für gesellschaftliches Chaos und Not, aber auch für ökonomischen, sozialen und kulturellen Fortschritt, welcher die Grundlagen für den Wirtschaftsboom des Landes ab den späten 1970er Jahren legte. Sie stand und steht gleichzeitig für Chinas Besinnung nach innen und seine internationale Isolation, aber auch für den Beginn seines Aufstiegs zur Weltmacht.

Ian Johnson: Jeremy Brown on the Cultural Revolution at the Grass Roots | 50周年纪念之外,被忽略的文革历史 (New York Times)

Jeremy Brown, 39, a history professor at Simon Fraser University in Burnaby, British Columbia, studied in Harbin and did research in Tianjin, focusing especially on the rural-urban divide in China under Mao Zedong. Most recently, he helped edit “Maoism at the Grassroots: Everyday Life in China’s Era of High Socialism.” In an interview, he discussed the 50th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution, what we miss in elite-focused narratives from that time and his pursuit of flea-market historiography.

Felix Wemheuer: 50 Jahre Kulturrevolution: Der Kampf geht weiter (Deutsche Welle)

50 Jahre nach dem Ausbruch der „Großen Proletarischen Kulturrevolution“ [hat] die chinesische Gesellschaft noch immer keinen Konsens gefunden, wie Maos Massenbewegung zu beurteilen ist.

Felix Wemheuer: Kulturrevolution und die Neue Linke im Westen (Deutsche Welle)
Jun Mai, Oliver Chou: Cultural Revolution, 50 years on (South China Morning Post)

Fifty years ago today, China issued a top directive calling on its people to rid society of “members of the bourgeoisie threatening to seize political power from the proletariat” – marking the start of a decade-long violent class struggle.
For 10 tumultuous years from 1966, the country underwent massive sociopolitical upheaval that saw countless politicians and intellectuals driven to their deaths, civilians killed in armed conflicts, and cultural relics and artefacts destroyed. The official death toll numbered more than 1.7 million.

Wen Liu: Sidney Rittenberg on Cultural Revolution 50 years later, its violence, its lessons (WA China Watch Digest)

This website was not meant to be this political. But one cannot watch China and skip a historic date, May 16, the 50th anniversary of the official start of the Cultural Revolution from 1966-1976, which served as perhaps more than anything dark, scorched, bloody yet fertile soil for, as well as a huge rear-view mirror of, today’s China of skyscrapers, bullet trains, Xi Jinping, and even Internet censorship. One cannot also watch China and forget that it was in 1972, during the Cultural Revolution, that President Nixon went to meet Mao in Beijing. To help us reflect on the Cultural Revolution, its meaning, its violence, its lessons, there is no better person than a great fellow Washingtonian, journalist, scholar, a participant as well as a prisoner of not only the Cultural Revolution, but for 35 years Mao’s revolution: Sidney Rittenberg.

Jeffrey Wasserstrom: How Will China Mark the 50th Anniversary of the Cultural Revolution? (Nation)

This month marks the anniversary of two surges of youth activism in China. One, the May 4 Movement, began with student protests 97 years ago. The other is the 50th anniversary of the Cultural Revolution, which is sometimes said to have begun with the first Red Guards putting up wall posters in late May of 1966. May 4 and Red Guard activists were once seen as part of related movements, but now they tend to be regarded as radically dissimilar.

Theodor Bergmann
Mrz 7th, 2016 by Gao

Wolfram Klein: Theodor Bergmann wird 100! (Sozialismus.de)

Mario Keßler schrieb einmal, dass Bergmanns Biografie exem­plarisch für jene Linke steht, »die von der antidemokratischen Rechten verfolgt, von den pseudodemokratischen Spießern gemieden und von den Stalinisten in Acht und Bann getan worden ist«. Ein Grund besteht darin, dass Theo bereits frühzeitig die Entscheidung traf, sich einer der »linken Zwischengruppen« – damals der Jugendorganisation der KPD-Opposition – anzuschließen und seine politische Arbeit unabhängig von den beiden Hauptströmungen der Arbeiterbewegung zu organisieren – gleichwohl immer in kritischer Solidarität.

Zum 100. Geburtstag von Theodor Bergmann (Sozialismus.info)

Am 7. März 1916 wurde Theodor Bergmann als siebtes Kind eines Rabbiners in Berlin geboren. 1927 trat er dem Jungspartakusbund bei, 1929 dem Jugendverband der neu gegründeten KPD-Opposition. 1933 nach seinem Abitur emigrierte er (Palästina, Tschechoslowakei, Schweden). 1946 kehrte er nach Deutschland zurück. Hier wurde er schließlich Professor für Agrarwissenschaften.
Dabei blieb er in der Tradition der KPD-Opposition aktiv, gab 1948 bis 1952 ihre Zeitung „Arbeiterpolitik“ heraus und verfasste eine Reihe von Büchern. 1990 trat er der PDS bei und war 1990/91 ihr Landesvorsitzender in Baden-Württemberg. Er bezeichnet sich als „kritischen Kommunisten“ und ist auch heute noch in der Stuttgarter Linken aktiv, kommt zu Versammlungen und Veranstaltungen, schreibt Bücher, hält mit fester Stimme Vorträge, reist alleine neugierig in der Welt herum …

Inge Jacobs: Bald 100 und immer noch links (Stuttgarter Zeitung)

Der frühere Hohenheimer Uniprofessor hat noch viel vor: Bücher schreiben, reisen, Vorträge halten, die Welt verbessern. Turnen und Disziplin halten ihn fit. Bald feiert er seinen 100. Geburtstag.

Siegfried Prokop: Wladiskaw Hedeler/Mario Keßler (Hrsg.): Reformen und Reformer im Kommunismus. Für Theodor Bergmann. Eine Würdigung. VSA: Verlag Hamburg (2015), 428 S. (Rezension, PDF; )

Theodor Bergmann spannt den Bogen von Liu Shaoqui [sic] bis Deng Xiaoping. Deng benannte 1980 Maos Fehler und die „Plagen unseres Systems“: lebenslange Funktionen, mangelnde Parteidemokratie, keine Trennung von Partei und Regierung. Er schlug vor, dass führende Funktionäre nur noch zehn Jahre im Amt bleiben dürfen. Jeder der „Unsterblichen“, der Veteranen des Langen Marsches, müsse unterschreiben, dass seine Leiche verbrannt wird – es dürfe keine Mausoleen mehr geben. Die KPCh übte Selbstkritik und rehabilitierte die Opfer der „Kulturrevolution“ öffentlich, was von der inneren Stärke einer revolutionären Partei zeuge.
Dengs Kurs auf Schaffung einer „sozialistischen Marktwirtschaft“ orientiere sich an einem langen zeitlichen Rahmen für den Übergang zum Sozialismus. Die sozialistische Gesellschaft werde kein Paradies sein, sondern eine Gesellschaft mit Widersprüchen.

Walder | Žižek
Jul 10th, 2015 by Gao

Ian Johnson: Andrew G. Walder on ‘China Under Mao’ (New York Times)

Q. You write that about 1.1 million to 1.6 million people died during the Cultural Revolution.
A. In the literature, the number ranges from 40,000 to eight million. So it’s a relatively conservative estimate. But as a percent of the population, 750 million, that’s about one-fifth the death rate of Stalin’s Great Terror. Some people are annoyed that I’m minimizing the violence, but I’m trying to put it in perspective.
Another point was that in the Cultural Revolution, most killing wasn’t by the students or Red Guards, but by the government.
We focus on students killing their teachers. That touches a nerve. Or we focus on armed conflict between rebel groups. But most of the killing occurred when order — in quotation marks — was restored. It was not the rampaging Red Guards, even though those deaths were the most dramatic. It was the military restoration of order. The cure was far worse than the disease.

Slavoj Žižek: Sinicisation (London Review of Books)

An exemplary case of today’s ‘socialism’ is China, where the Communist Party is engaged in a campaign of self-legitimisation which promotes three theses: 1) Communist Party rule alone can guarantee successful capitalism; 2) the rule of the atheist Communist Party alone can guarantee authentic religious freedom; and 3) continuing Communist Party rule alone can guarantee that China will be a society of Confucian conservative values (social harmony, patriotism, moral order). These aren’t simply nonsensical paradoxes.

Arbeitsmigration | Verschuldung
Apr 27th, 2015 by Gao

Bernice Chan: How modern-day Chinese migrants are making a new life in Italy (South China Morning Post)

Work Tensions Rise in China, Despite Calls for Harmony (Wall Street Journal)

Labor disputes continued to swell in China over the first three months of this year, government data showed Friday, as slowing growth in the world’s second-largest economy puts more pressure on workers.
Roughly 190,300 labor-arbitration cases were filed from January to March, up 16.8% from the same period a year earlier, said Li Zhong, a spokesman for the Ministry of Human Resources and Social Security, in a news briefing. Those cases involved some 275,600 people, up 24.8% from a year earlier, he added.
The first-quarter increase in arbitration cases outpaced the 12.6% on-year rise logged in the previous three months, according to ministry data. The rise in the number of affected workers was also faster than the 15.5% on-year increase seen in the fourth quarter.

Neil Gough: China’s Economy Puts New Pressure on Its Lopsided Job Market (New York Times)

趙平復:「萬隆會議精神」實際內涵和當代意義(苦勞網)

Geoffrey Crothall: Is Li Keqiang more at home in Davos than in Beijing? (China Labour Bulletin)

Mr Li was in his element at the World Economic Forum’s annual meeting in Davos this January where he gave a keynote address, and in the interview with the Financial Times on 31 March, in which he outlined his vision of China as an integral part of the global financial and economic system. The Davos crowd speak the same language as Mr Li; they are concerned with same issues, and basically want to see the same thing – stable and balanced global economic growth led by innovation and free markets.

„Youwei“: The End of Reform in China (Foreign Affairs)

Since the start of its post-Mao reforms in the late 1970s, the communist regime in China has repeatedly defied predictions of its impending demise. The key to its success lies in what one might call “authoritarian adaptation”—the use of policy reforms to substitute for fundamental institutional change. Under Deng Xiaoping, this meant reforming agriculture and unleashing entrepreneurship. Under Jiang Zemin, it meant officially enshrining a market economy, reforming state-owned enterprises, and joining the World Trade Organization. Under Hu Jintao and Wen Jiabao, it meant reforming social security. Many expect yet another round of sweeping reforms under Xi Jinping—but they may be disappointed.

Ian Johnson: Lawsuit Over Banned Memoir Asks China to Explain Censorship (New York Times)

Though China’s censorship of the Internet is widely known, its aggressive efforts to intercept publications being carried into the country have received less notice.

Mike Bird: China just let part of a state-owned company default for the first time ever (Business Insider)
Enda Curran, Lu Lianting: China Has a Massive Debt Problem (Bloomberg)

China has a $28 trillion problem. That’s the country’s total government, corporate and household debt load as of mid-2014, according to McKinsey & Co. It’s equal to 282 percent of the country’s total annual economic output.

Christopher Langner, Lu Lianting: We’re Just Learning the True Cost of China’s Debt (Bloomberg)
Mia Tahara-Stubbs: China bad debt spikes by more than a third (CNBC)
Laura He: China government firm’s default shocks market — Is more to come? (Markte Watch)

Russell Flannery: China Now Has A Record 400 Billionaires And Billionaire Families; Greater China 500+ (Forbes)

P S Ramya: China’s Myanmar Conundrum ()

Myanmar’s domestic politics are central to China’s strategic interests, and are testing Beijing’s core principles.

Gray Tuttle: China’s Race Problem (Foreign Affairs)

Nick Davies: Vietnam 40 years on: how a communist victory gave way to capitalist corruption (Guardian)

After the military victory, Vietnam’s socialist model began to collapse. Cut off by US-led trade embargos and denied reconstruction aid, it plunged into poverty. Now its economy is booming – but so is inequality and corruption

1989
Jun 2nd, 2014 by Gao

Nach wie vor unübertroffen ist die dreistündige Dokumentation The Gate of Heavenly Peace von Carma Hinton und Richard Gordon.

Rückblick auf die Ereignisse aus der Sicht US-amerikanischer Medien:
Mike Chinoy, Craig Stubing, Clayton Dube Assignment: China – Tiananmen Square (YouTube / University of Southern California U.S.-China Institute)

Veranstaltungen in Wien:
4. Juni 1989 – 25 Jahre danach (Institut für Ostasienwissenschaften der Universität Wien)
Gezeigt wurde die WDR-Dokumentation “Tiananmen – 20 Jahre nach dem Massaker” (2009) von Shi Ming und Thomas Weidenbach.
Montag, 2. Juni 2014, 18 Uhr: Dokumentarfilm Tiananmen (D/Ö 2009) und anschließende Diskussion
Dienstag, 3. Juni 2014, 18.30 Uhr: Diskussionsveranstaltung zu Bedeutung und Wirkung des Protests und seiner gewaltsamen Niederschlagung (mit Impulsreferaten von Christian Göbel, Richard Trappl, Susanne Weigelin-Schwiedrzik und einer studentischen Projektgruppe)

Matthias hat folgenden Link geschickt:
Mark Siemons: Was Mainstream ist, bestimmen wir (Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung)

Weitere Artikel:
Anton Pam: Eine gescheiterte Revolution? (gongchao)
Voices from Tiananmen (South China Morning Post)
Twenty-five years since the Tiananmen protests: Legacies of the student-worker divide (Nào/libcom.org)
Long Xinming: Let’s Talk About Tiananmen Square, 1989 My Hearsay is Better Than Your Hearsay (NSNBC)
Edward Wong: Liu Heung Shing on Photographing Tiananmen (New York Times)
Andrew Jacobs, Chris Buckley, Jonathan Ansfield: Tales of Army Discord Show Tiananmen Square in a New Light (New York Times)
Andrew Jacobs: Chen Guang on the Soldiers Who Retook Tiananmen Square (New York Times)
Andrew Jacobs: Far From Beijing, Jaded Students Inspired to Protest (New York Times)
Malcolm Moore: Wikileaks: no bloodshed inside Tiananmen Square, cables claim (Telegraph)
Zoe Li, David McKenzie: Crackdown on dissent ahead of Tiananmen Square 25th anniversary (CNN)
Alan Chin: Eyewitness Views: From hope to horror in Tiananmen Square (Reuters)
Daniel F. Vukovich: Uncivil Society, or, Orientalism and Tiananmen, 1989 (Social Science Research Network)
Kate Phillips: Springtime in Tiananmen Square, 1989 (Atlantic)
Terril Yue Jones: Tiananmen Square at 25 (Wilson Quarterly)
Ma Jian: Tiananmen Square 25 years on: ‚Every person in the crowd was a victim of the massacre‘ (Guardian)
Euan McKirdy: Chinese-Australian artist Guo Jian detained ahead of Tiananmen anniversary (CNN)
Tania Branigan: China to deport Tiananmen Square artist Guo Jian for visa fraud (Guardian)
Tania Branigan: Australian artist arrested for marking Tiananmen anniversary (Guardian)
Sophie Brown: Chinese journalist Gao Yu detained ahead of Tiananmen anniversary (CNN)
Dan Levin: China Escalating Attack on Google (New York Times)
APA: China blockt (sic) Google vor 25. Jahrestag des Pekinger Massakers (Standard)
APA: Hongkong: Hunderte Menschen demonstrieren vor Tiananmen-Jahrestag (Standard)
吴雨、李鱼:新闻报道刘晓波、许志永获颁美国民主奖 (Deutsche Welle)
翟亚菲:美国民主基金会又“颁奖”骚扰中国(环球时报)
Roy Greenslade: Foreign journalists in China harassed over Tiananmen Square anniversary (Guardian)
Lucy Davies: Tiananmen Square: the calm before the storm (Telegraph)
Chester Yung: Once Marked by Sadness, Hong Kong’s Tiananmen Vigil Now Stirs Anger (Wall Street Journal)
Paramita Ghosh: Book on Tiananmen Square massacre marks 25th anniversary (Hindustan Times)
Brian Becker: Tiananmen: the massacre that wasn’t (Party for Socialism and Liberation)

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