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Bildungswesen in Xinjiang
Jun 6th, 2017 by Gao

Die chinesische Regierung hat seit einigen Jahren Absolvent_innen der sogenannten „zweisprachigen“ Mittelschulen systematisch privilegiert. (Das sind Mittelschulen, deren Zweisprachigkeit darin besteht, dass die Muttersprache der Schüler_innen nicht Chinesisch, die Unterrichtssprache jedoch ausschließlich Chinesisch ist.)

Adrian Zenz: Problematic Privilege in Xinjiang (Diplomat)

On April 12, China’s Ministry of Education announced that the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), the restive Muslim province in China’s far west, would no longer provide added points to university entrance exam applicants from bilingual educational tracks. Bilingual education was established in 2004 with the aim to promote Chinese language education among the region’s ethnic minorities, especially the Uyghurs. In the bilingual system, the role of the minority language is typically restricted to that of a single language subject, creating a highly immersive Chinese language environment.

2016年新疆高考各批次录取分数线正式公布(新疆维吾尔自治区教育厅 / Xinjiang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayonluⱪ maarip nazariti)

6月26日,自治区招生办公布了2016年新疆普通高考各批次最低投档控制分数线。

第二代民族政策探讨(中国民族宗教网)

第二代民族政策是清华大学国情研究中心主任胡鞍钢与胡联合,以及北京大学社会学系教授马戎提出来的民族政策思路,倡导推行淡化族群意识和56个民族的观念,强化中华民族的身份意识和身份认同,推进中华民族一体化和国家认同的政策。第二代民族政策的指导思想是效仿美国的民族大熔炉模式,不容许任何一个族群生活在一块属于自己的历史疆域内。

James Leibold: Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable? Policy Studies 68 (2013) (PDF, East-West Centre)

There are … signs that interethnic conflict may be growing as free-market forces and increased interethnic communication and mobility intensifies ethnic-based competition… Amid this perception of crisis, Chinese academics, policymakers, and other thought-leaders are engaged in unprecedented debate over the future direction of their country’s ethnic policies… A “melting pot” model is increasingly being accepted as better for de-emphasizing ethnic consciousness, improving ethnic relations and solidifying national unity in the long run… Barry Sautman argues that [these] proposals to “curb minority rights” “emanate from a small number of Chinese academics” yet “reflect a prominent strand of thinking about ethnic policies”.

Ma Rong: The development of minority education and the practice of bilingual education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. (PDF, Case Western Reserve University)

Lehrer | Zhou Yongkang | Australien | China Airlines
Jun 20th, 2016 by Gao

China’s teachers: The unsung heroes of the workers’ movement (China Labour Bulletin)

Images of worker activism in China tend to be dominated by factory workers and, more recently, coal miners and steel workers. However, some of the largest, best organized and most determined worker protests of the last few years have been staged by teachers.
Teachers make up less than two percent of China’s overall workforce but they account for about four percent of the strikes and protests recorded on China Labour Bulletin’s Strike Map. Moreover, unlike workers in privately-owned factories, most teachers are employed by the state and their protests often pose a direct challenge to local government officials and administrators.

Xinhua: Son of Zhou Yongkang sentenced to 18 years in prison (China Daily)

A court in central China’s Hubei Province on Wednesday sentenced Zhou Bin, son of Zhou Yongkang, to 18 years in prison for taking bribes and illegal business operations.
Zhou Bin was also fined 350.2 million yuan (53 million U.S. dollars) and all of his illegally obtained assets will be confiscated, according to the verdict of Yichang City Intermediate People’s Court.

Liam Ward: Radical Chinese labour in Australian history (Marxist Left Review)

Flick through any mainstream book on Australian history and chances are you’ll find some version of the phrase “cheap Chinese labour”. Historians usually employ it to explain the alleged centrality of the organised working class in establishing racist anti-Chinese immigration laws, particularly the cluster of federal government legislation broadly known as the White Australia policy. This competition from pliant non-union labour was interpreted through the racial supremacist ideas of the time and, so the argument goes, prompted unionists to respond with vociferous calls for the total exclusion of non-white immigrants.
But a subtle shadow tracing through the history books suggests a problem with the argument. Time and again, often without any significant conclusions being drawn, we see passing reference to Chinese workers in Australia organising, striking and generally giving hell to their employers. These are fleeting glimpses of a neglected history of class struggle waged by Chinese workers whose memory continues to be dismissed as both separate from and somehow a threat to the workers’ movement.

Nele Husmann: China Airlines darf nicht nach Athen fliegen (AeroTelegraph)

Die griechische Regierung hat China Airlines eine Absage erteilt: Ihre Flugzeuge dürfen nicht in Athen landen. Das angespannte Verhältnis zwischen Taiwan und der Volksrepublik China ist wohl der Grund.

Bildungswesen und Sozialchauvinismus
Jun 14th, 2016 by Gao

Javier C. Hernández: China Tries to Redistribute Education to the Poor, Igniting Class Conflict | 中国高校录取名额之争引发阶层对立 (New York Times)

Parents in at least two dozen Chinese cities have taken to the streets in recent weeks to denounce a government effort to expand access to higher education for students from less developed regions. The unusually fierce backlash is testing the Communist Party’s ability to manage class conflict, as well as the political acumen of its leader, Xi Jinping.
The nation’s cutthroat university admissions process has long been a source of anxiety and acrimony. But the breadth and intensity of the demonstrations, many of them organized on social media, appear to have taken the authorities by surprise.
At issue is China’s state-run system of higher education, in which top schools are concentrated in big prosperous cities, mostly on the coast, and weaker, underfunded schools dominate the nation’s interior. Placement is determined almost exclusively by a single national exam, the gaokao, which was administered across China starting on Tuesday. The test is considered so important to one’s fate that many parents begin preparing their children for it before kindergarten. The government has threatened to imprison cheaters for up to seven years.
The exam gives the admissions system a meritocratic sheen, but the government also reserves most spaces in universities for students in the same city or province, in effect making it harder for applicants from the hinterlands to get into the nation’s best schools…

US-Politik gegen China | Studierende in USA
Jun 2nd, 2015 by Gao

Mike Whitney: Why is Obama Goading China? (CounterPunch)

US Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter is willing to risk a war with China in order to defend “freedom of navigation” in the South China Sea. Speaking in Honolulu, Hawaii on Wednesday, Carter issued his “most forceful” warning yet, demanding “an immediate and lasting halt to land reclamation” by China in the disputed Spratly Islands.
Carter said: “There should be no mistake: The United States will fly, sail, and operate wherever international law allows, as we do all around the world.” He also added that the United States intended to remain “the principal security power in the Asia-Pacific for decades to come.”
In order to show Chinese leaders “who’s the boss”, Carter has threatened to deploy US warships and surveillance aircraft to within twelve miles of the islands that China claims are within their territorial waters. Not surprisingly, the US is challenging China under the provisions of the UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, a document the US has stubbornly refused to ratify…
So what’s this really all about? Why does Washington care so much about a couple hundred yards of sand piled up on reefs reefs in the South China Sea? What danger does that pose to US national security? And, haven’t Vietnam, Taiwan and the Philippines all engaged in similar “land reclamation” activities without raising hackles in DC?
Of course, they have. The whole thing is a joke. Just like Carter’s claim that he’s defending the lofty principal of “freedom of navigation” is a joke. China has never blocked shipping lanes or seized boats sailing in international waters. Never. The same cannot be said of the United States that just recently blocked an Iranian ship loaded with humanitarian relief–food, water and critical medical supplies–headed to starving refugees in Yemen. Of course, when the US does it, it’s okay.
The point is, Washington doesn’t give a hoot about the Spratly Islands; it’s just a pretext to slap China around and show them who’s running the show in their own backyard. Carter even admits as much in his statement above when he says that the US plans to be “the principal security power in the Asia-Pacific for decades to come.”

Jie Dalei, Jared McKinney: Balancing China and the Realist Road to War (Diplomat)

For years, in fact, prominent scholars – such as John Mearsheimer of the University of Chicago – have called for America to balance against a rising China. They have made this appeal according to the abstract structural logic of international relations theory. The logic goes like this: American military primacy should be maintained at all costs, China’s rise threatens this primacy, so the U.S. should work to “balance” against – or, broadly, contain – a rising China by surrounding it with powerful American military capabilities, creating NATO-like adversarial alliances, isolating it economically, and, most recently, “imposing costs” when it does things the U.S. does not like.

Matt Schiavenza: American Universities Are Addicted to Chinese Students (Atlantic)

A startling number of Chinese students are getting kicked out of American colleges. According to a white paper published by WholeRen, a Pittsburgh-based consultancy, an estimated 8,000 students from China were expelled from universities and colleges across the United States in 2013-4. The vast majority of these students—around 80 percent—were removed due to cheating or failing their classes.
As long as universities have existed, students have found a way to get expelled from them. But the prevalence of expulsions of Chinese students should be a source of alarm for American university administrators. According to the Institute of International Education, 274,439 students from China attended school in the United States in 2013-4, a 16 percent jump from the year before. Chinese students represent 31 percent of all international students in the country and contributed an estimated $22 billion to the U.S. economy in 2014.

Kohle
Feb 1st, 2015 by Gao

AP: Coal Production Drops in China for 1st Time in 14 Years (New York Times)

China recorded its first drop in coal production since 2000 last year, as the world’s biggest greenhouse gas emitter pulls back on its use of the fossil fuel and switches to cleaner energy sources.
According to the country’s national coal association, China produced 3.5 billion tons of coal in the first 11 months of 2014, 2.1 percent less than the same period in 2013. The association estimates the drop for the entire year will reach 2.5 percent.

The Guardian view on coal in China: digging down (Guardian)

The People’s Republic appears to be mining and burning less fuel than before. Excellent news for the planet – if it’s true.

Jamil Anderlini, Lucy Hornby: China moves to limit coal glut (Financial Times; Link via Google News)

China has slapped a moratorium on new coal mines in its eastern regions as it battles an enormous supply glut.
As with swaths of Chinese industry, coal production is racked by overcapacity and falling prices, contributing to the slowdown that saw the economy expand 7.4 per cent last year, the slowest annual pace in nearly a quarter of a century.

China’s miners take a stand as coal production falls for first time in 14 years (China Labour Bulletin)

While environmentalists are hailing the drop in China’s coal production last year, it is the country’s miners who are feeling the immediate impact, with mines closing down and wages withheld for months on end…
[M]ore and more miners have staged protests demanding payment of wages, social security and redundancy pay. And it is not just coal miners, iron ore miners, who are also affected by the economic slowdown, have staged protests as well. In the final quarter of 2014, CLB’s Strike Map recorded a total of 17 protests by miners across the country, compared with just a handful of protests in the whole of the previous year.

AFP: China manufacturing shrinks for the first time in two years, survey shows (Guardian)

China’s manufacturing activity contracted for the first time in more than two years in January, an official survey showed on Sunday, signalling further downward pressure on the world’s second-largest economy.
The official purchasing managers’ index (PMI) released by the national bureau of statistics came in at 49.8 last month, down from the 50.1 recorded in December.
The index, which tracks activity in factories and workshops, is considered a key indicator of the health of China’s economy. A figure above 50 signals expansion, while anything below indicates contraction.

Außerdem:
AFP: China says no room for ‚western values‘ in university education (Guardian)

China’s education minister has vowed to ban university textbooks which promote “western values”, state media said, in the latest sign of ideological tightening under President Xi Jinping.
“Never let textbooks promoting western values appear in our classes,” minister Yuan Guiren said, according to a report late Thursday by China’s official Xinhua news agency.
“Remarks that slander the leadership of the Communist Party of China” and “smear socialism” must never appear in college classrooms, he added according to Xinhua.

Korruption | Hochschulbildung
Sep 10th, 2014 by Gao

Didi Kirsten Tatlow: Ren Jianming on the Fight Against Corruption in China, and His Own Solution (New York Times)

Q: When I talk to ordinary people they support the campaign. But what’s interesting is that many feel that officials have no choice but to be corrupt. Do you agree?
A: It’s true. Take the recent situation in Maoming in Guangdong Province, where two successive party secretaries were corrupt. As they investigated they discovered that lots of officials below them were also corrupt. They all had to give bribes to the party secretary and his predecessor. Think for a moment: a party secretary decides how things are. If they’re about money changing hands, then you have no choice. You bribe, or you give up any hope of promotion. So the number of corrupt officials today is very, very high. At the time of economic reform [around 1978, after Mao’s death], we spoke of “moral problems.” Only a few cadres had moral problems. I’m afraid today it’s the other way round. Only a few do not…
My own take is that the higher the official, the greater the corruption. A university student who has just passed the civil service examinations is honest. When he gets to be the head of a ke [the lowest position on the 27-rung civil service ladder], then head of a chu, a ting and a minister, he will make all kinds of connections. Those connections are corrupt. We say that about 30 percent of chu heads are corrupt. By ting level it’s about 50 percent, ministers about 80 percent. You can work out for yourself what it is on the Politburo. So if the investigations stop with Zhou then you can’t say the movement is being pursued to the end.

中纪委:“公款送月饼”将点名道姓曝光(新华网)

据中央纪委监察部网站消息,纠正“四风”,要紧盯重要时间节点。中秋临近,为进一步落实中央八项规定精神,严防“四风”反弹,中央纪委监察部网站8月10日开通公款送月饼等“四风”问题举报窗,畅通监督举报渠道,同时每周通报各级纪检监察机关查处的违反中央八项规定精神的案件。这是继“五一”前后开设纠正“四风”监督举报直通车之后,再次恢复周周通报,旨在强化监督执纪问责工作,发挥警示和震慑作用,努力还大家一个风清气正的节日。

王岐山:八项规定我得抓五年 先整治官员乱作为(凤凰卫视)

Helen Gao: China’s Education Gap (New York Times)

The percentage of students at Peking University from rural origins, for example, has fallen to about 10 percent in the past decade, down from around 30 percent in the 1990s…
While China has phenomenally expanded basic education for its people, quadrupling its output of college graduates in the past decade, it has also created a system that discriminates against its less wealthy and well-connected citizens, thwarting social mobility at every step with bureaucratic and financial barriers.

EACS und Hànbàn
Aug 12th, 2014 by Gao

Roger Greatrex: The Deletion of Pages from EACS Conference materials in Braga (EACS)
Elizabeth Redden: Censorship at China Studies Meeting (Inside Higher Ed)

Amid increasing concerns that Western universities may stand to compromise their academic integrity in collaborating with the Chinese government-funded Confucius Institutes, the reported censorship of conference materials at the recent European Association for Chinese Studies conference in Portugal has raised alarm.
According to a detailed account posted on the EACS website, conference materials were seized and several pages removed from the conference program – including an advertisement for the Taiwan-based Chiang Ching-kuo Foundation for International Scholarly Exchange, a conference cosponsor — after the chief executive of Confucius Institute Headquarters, Xu Lin, objected to the contents.

Shih Hsiu-chuan: Foundation angry over EACS brochures (Taipei Times)
Zhu Zhiqun: The Undoing of China’s Soft Power (Diplomat)

Aktuelle Streiks nach Region
Apr 23rd, 2014 by Gao

Folgende Zusammenstellung stammt von „Husunzi“.

Bei Yue Yuen in Dongguan streiken noch immer 10.000–50.000 von 40.000–60.000 Arbeiter_innen:
China sports shoe factory halts production as strike escalates (Financial Times)
东莞裕元罢工诗抄:运动正是高峰!(新生代)

Bei Yue Yuen in Jiangxi streiken 2.000 Arbeiter_innen in Solidarität mit ihren Kolleg_innen in Dongguan:
Jonathan Kaiman: Strike spreads at Chinese supplier to Adidas and Nike (Guardian)

In Henan streiken seit über zwei Wochen tausende Lehrer_innen:
Jiang Pei, Lin Jing, Luisetta Mudie: Henan Teachers Vow to Keep Marching Over Pay Demands (Radio Free Asia)

In Shenzhen streiken seit dem 16. April tausende Busfahrer_innen:
Thousands of bus company workers strike in Shenzhen (China Labour Bulletin)
深圳东部公交千人罢工抗议低待遇 警察强行驱散(新生代)

In Beijing streiken tausend Arbeiter_innen eines Motorenwerkes:
维灵、何山:北京千人罢工争补偿 (Radio Free Asia)

In Foshan streiken seit zwei Tagen Straßenkehrer_innen:
冯雷亮、曾群善:佛山百名环卫工罢工要求涨薪千元 每月收入所剩无几(新生代)

In Dongguan begannen Taxifahrer_innen am 18. April einen Streik:
Dongguan cabbies launch strike amid business slowdown (South China Morning Post)

Außerdem gibt es u.a. Proteste in Maoming gegen den Bau einer Chemiefabrik und Proteste in Wenzhou gegen Übergriffe vonseiten des Städtischen Ordnungsdienstes (城管).

Lehrerstreik in Luòhé | Forum Arbeitswelten
Apr 15th, 2014 by Gao

河南教师罢工抗议克扣工资 多名代表遭殴打逮捕(新生代)

河南省漯河市上千教师,自周二起连日罢课,抗议工资被政府克扣,有多名教师代表被警察殴打及被捕。至记者周五截稿时止,罢课仍未结束。

Beim letzten Treffen der China Study Group Europe haben wir über diese Veranstaltung und diesen Bericht diskutiert:
Gewerkschaften und gewerkschaftliches Handeln der Lohnabhängigen in China – Wo zeigen sich emanzipatorische Perspektiven? (Forum Arbeitswelten)

Ein Diskussionsworkshop am 14./15. März 2014 des Forum Arbeitswelten e.V. in Bochum in Zusammenarbeit mit dem Forum Eltern und Schule (FESCH)

China-Reise Mai/Juni 2013: Erfahrungen aus Basis-Kontakten (Forum Arbeitswelten)

Zu einem Austausch über Erfahrungen der Arbeiterbewegung reisten aus Deutschland drei ehemalige Betriebsratsmitglieder aus Großbetrieben der Automobil- und der Chemieindustrie und drei gewerkschaftsnahe Menschen aus Wissenschaft und Bildungsarbeit im Mai/Juni 2013 nach China.

Wang Hui | Cui Jian | Arbeitswelt | Schulwesen
Jan 20th, 2014 by Gao

En Liang Khong: After the party: an interview with Wang Hui (openDemocracy)

The luminary of China’s emergent “New Left” speaks to openDemocracy about the lessons of labour unrest, the Cultural Revolution as taboo, and post-party politics.

韩浩月:崔健上不上春晚没必要过度拔高(新京报)
歌曲未通过审查 崔健退出马年春晚(财讯)

17日近23时,马年春晚的最新消息,“摇滚教父”崔健因歌曲《一无所有》未通过审查,在带妆彩排前退出马年春晚。据悉,崔健准备在马年春晚舞台上唱响《一无所有》的消息传出后,对于摇滚界的音乐人以及喜欢摇滚的发烧友产生了不小的震动。

China protest singer Cui Jian pulls out of TV gala (BBC)

Chinese singer Cui Jian, one of whose songs became an anthem of the 1989 Tiananmen Square protests, has pulled out of a major show on state TV. …
His manager You You said that he withdrew after organisers tried to censor his performance.
In 1989, he had performed to protesting students in Tiananmen Square, who took up his song Nothing to My Name.
Cui Jian had wanted to sing the song during the gala, but the organisers said he would have to choose another, You You told AP. …
His manager says that he has been asked to perform on national TV before.
But she adds these events sometimes fall through because Cui Jian refuses to lip sync.

Jamie Merrill: China’s rock rebel Cui Jian gets the Party startled (Independent)
APA: Chinesischer Rockstar Cui Jian sagte Auftritt bei Staatsgala ab (Standard)

Zwei etwas ältere Artikel, die aus Versehen bisher nicht hier gelandet sind:
Rolf Geffken: Arbeit in China: Harmonie & Konflikt – Ein Konferenzbericht (China Observer)

Noch während Mitte Dezember 2013 die chinesischen Medien über Ausgabenkürzungen der öffentlichen Haushalte, eine Reduzierung der Kreditaufnahme und eine Erhöhung des Renteneintrittsalters berichteten, ging in Beijing eine hochrangige Wirtschaftskonferenz zu Ende, die der Umsetzung der Beschlüsse des 3. Plenums des 18. Zentralkomitees der KP Chinas diente. Offensichtlich steht die Wirtschaft Chinas an einem Scheideweg. Der Pfad des jahrelangen Wachstums scheint einer möglichen Stagnation zu weichen. Schon fordern chinesische Wirtschaftsexperten eine verstärkte “Erhöhung der Produktivität” anstelle von anhaltendem Wirtschaftswachstum und einer anhaltenden Steigerung der Staatsausgaben.
In der Sprache des Kapitals bedeutet die Erhöhung von Produktivität vor allem: die Reduzierung von Kosten bei gleichzeitiger Erhöhung des Produktionsergebnisses. Technische Innovation ist dabei nur ein Stichwort. Aktuelle Umfragen etwa unter deutschen Konsumenten zeigen das Qualitätsdefizit chinesischer Produkte auf dem Weltmarkt auf. Zweifellos wird die jetzt bevorstehende Qualitätsoffensive in China auch und gerade auf die Reduzierung der Arbeitskosten abzielen. Weniger qualifizierte Arbeitskräfte werden entlassen werden. Die bisherige Welle von Lohnerhöhungen dürfte einstweilen gestoppt werden. Ob dies auf Gegenliebe bei der arbeitenden Bevölkerung Chinas stößt, ist allerdings fraglich. Im Gegenteil: Eine Verschärfung der sozialen Konflikte, in Sonderheit der Arbeitskonflikte, erscheint vorprogrammiert.

Liz Carter: Chinese Literature Textbooks Modified to Curb ‘Deep Thinking’ (Tea Leaf Nation)

Recent changes to China’s teaching curriculum have made the news: an essay by the father of modern Chinese literature, Lu Xun (1881 – 1936), has gone missing from new editions of middle school textbooks. Citing the need for more “age-appropriate” material, the People’s Education Press has removed Lu Xun’s essay “The Kite” from its most recent edition, replacing it with an essay entitled “Autumn Nostalgia” by Shi Tiesheng. …
An article analyzing the changes published by Xinhua News Agency, China’s state-run media, noted that, “Middle school students should not be reading anything too deep.” Zhao Yu, an author quoted in the article, voiced his agreement with the decision, stating that, “We shouldn’t make students undertake reflection and critical thinking too soon; instead, we should let them gradually accumulate knowledge.”

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