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Entlassungen | Milliardäre
Mrz 7th, 2016 by Gao

Kevin Yao, Meng Meng: China expects to lay off 1.8 million workers in coal, steel sectors (Reuters)

China said on Monday it expects to lay off 1.8 million workers in the coal and steel industries, or about 15 percent of the workforce, as part of efforts to reduce industrial overcapacity, but no timeframe was given.
It was the first time China has given figures that underline the magnitude of its task in dealing with slowing growth and bloated state enterprises.
Yin Weimin, the minister for human resources and social security, told a news conference that 1.3 million workers in the coal sector could lose jobs, plus 500,000 from the steel sector. China’s coal and steel sectors employ about 12 million workers, according to data published by the National Bureau of Statistics.
„This involves the resettlement of a total of 1.8 million workers. This task will be very difficult, but we are still very confident,“ Yin said.

China schrumpft Industrie und streicht Millionen Jobs (Standard)

China steht vor den größten Massenentlassungen seit zwei Jahrzehnten. Die Regierung will in der Industrie fünf bis sechs Millionen Arbeitsplätze streichen. …
Ende der 1990er-Jahre waren in einem Zeitraum von fünf Jahren 28 Millionen Jobs abgebaut worden. Die damalige Umstrukturierung verursachte Kosten in Höhe von 73,1 Milliarden Yuan (10,25 Mrd. Euro) für die soziale Abfederung. Erst am Montag hatte Arbeitsminister Yin Weimin erklärt, dass allein in der Kohle- und Stahlindustrie 1,8 Millionen Jobs wegfallen sollen.

七问供给侧结构性改革——权威人士谈当前经济怎么看怎么干(《人民日报》~新华社)

去年底召开的中央经济工作会议,对“十三五”开局之年的经济工作进行了全面部署,强调要着力推进供给侧结构性改革,推动经济持续健康发展。如何认真学习、深刻领会、正确贯彻中央经济工作会议精神,围绕推进供给侧结构性改革这条主线,做好新一年经济工作?近日,权威人士接受本报独家专访,对“供给侧结构性改革”作了解读和阐释。

Chris Buckley: Xi Jinping’s Remedy for China’s Economic Gloom Has Echoes of Reaganomics (New York Times)

With the world looking to China for assurance that it can manage its slowing economy and tumultuous stock market, President Xi Jinping has begun pushing a remedy that sounds less like Marx and Mao than Reagan and Thatcher.
Mr. Xi is calling his next big economic initiative “supply-side structural reform,” a deliberate echo of the nostrums of tax cuts and deregulation advocated by those conservative Western leaders in the 1980s.

Johnny Erling: 218 Milliardäre in Chinas Parlamenten (Standard)

Noch nie tummelten sich so viele Milliardäre unter den Volksvertretern. 117 Volkskongressabgeordnete sind im Hauptberuf schwerreiche Unternehmer, Konzernchefs oder Internetbetreiber. Weitere 101 Superreiche sitzen im Beraterparlament [Gemeint ist die Politische Konsultativkonferenz des Chinesischen Volkes, 政協].
Rupert Hoogewerf, Herausgeber der jährlich in Shanghai erscheinenden Hurun-Reichenlisten, hat sie nun auf seiner 2016 erschienen Weltliste zum Ranking von 2188 Dollar- Milliardären und einer weiteren Liste von 1877 chinesischen Superreichen erkannt. Am Samstag veröffentlichte er eine neue Ranking-Liste mit 218 der „reichsten Politiker Chinas 2016“, die in beiden Kammern des Parlaments sitzen. Mitglieder dieses exklusiven Klubs können nur Abgeordnete werden, die mindestens Firmen-, Aktien- oder Immobilienvermögen im Wert von mehr als zwei Milliarden Yuan (300 Millionen Euro) besitzen. Ein Jahre zuvor hatte der Brite 203 Abgeordnete im Volkskongress und im Beraterparlament als Milliardäre gezählt, darunter 106 superreiche Abgeordnete im NPC (3,6 Prozent aller Delegierten) und 97 im CPPCC (4,3 Prozent). Nun stieg der Anteil auf 3,9 und 4,5 Prozent. …
Insgesamt vermehrten die 117 Superreichen im Volkskongress 2015 ihr Vermögen im Durchschnitt um 20 Prozent, die 101 im Beraterparlament um zehn Prozent. Chinas Wirtschaftswachstum stieg dagegen nur um 6,9 Prozent. …
Die meisten darunter dürften sogar Mitglieder der Kommunistischen Partei sein, wie etwa der Wahaha-Getränkegigant Zong Qinghou aus Hangzhou. …
Seit 2001 umarmt die Partei pragmatisch den neuen Geldadel Chinas, solange er patriotisch gesinnt ist, seine Steuern zahlt und den Aufbau des Landes unterstützt. Nirgendwo werden Unternehmer so schnell zu Milliardären wie in China …
Auf der globalen Hoogewerf-Reichenliste sind unter den 2188 Dollar-Milliardären in 68 Ländern auf der ganzen Welt bereits 568 Chinesen.

潘奕燃:电视剧通则曝光 早恋婚外恋转世等不得出现(中国网~搜狐)

在前天举行的电视剧四大行业委员会的联合年会上,国家新闻出版广电总局电视剧司司长李京盛在谈到电视剧的生产制作规范时,提到了由中广联电视制片委员会和中国电视剧制作产业协会共同制定的《电视剧内容制作通则》。
  新出台的《电视剧内容制作通则》曝出,该通则详细规定了不能在电视剧中出现的具体内容,涉及同性恋、婚外情、未成年人早恋等。该通则对于电视剧制作单位和创作者有“指南”作用。

电视剧通则曝光 早恋同性恋转世不得出现(新浪)

《电视剧内容制作通则》曝出,该通则详细规定了不能在电视剧中出现的具体内容,涉及同性恋、婚外情、未成年人早恋等。

Hannah Ellis-Petersen: China bans depictions of gay people on television (Guardian)

The Chinese government has banned all depictions of gay people on television, as part of a cultural crackdown on “vulgar, immoral and unhealthy content”.
Chinese censors have released new regulations for content that “exaggerates the dark side of society” and now deem homosexuality, extramarital affairs, one night stands and underage relationships as illegal on screen.

Josh Horwitz, Zheping Huang: China’s new television rules ban homosexuality, drinking, and vengeance (Quartz)

In the past decade, Chinese society has embraced homosexuality more openly than many neighboring nations in Asia. But a new set of rules from a subdivision of SARFT, one of the main media censorship bodies, go in the other direction. If upheld, Chinese producers can no longer make television shows depicting “abnormal sexual relations or sexual behavior” including “homosexuality” or “perversion.”
That’s not all. The new rules also ban shows that depict smoking, drinking, adultery, sexual freedom or reincarnation, among many other activities.

Bethany Allen-Ebrahimian: How China Won the War Against Western Media (Foreign Policy)

The one-two punch of censorship plus propaganda has discredited Western journalism in the eyes of many Chinese.

Ilaria Maria Sala: Second ‚missing‘ Hong Kong bookseller returns from China (Guardian)

Cheung Chi-ping arrives back home two days after authorities released his boss, Lui Por, but three publishers remain on the mainland.

Klassenkampf | KDVR
Apr 25th, 2015 by Gao

Ashley Smith, Ellen David Friedman: Contours of the class struggle in China (Socialist Worker)

Since the 2008 and the spread of the global economic crisis, China has experienced a sharp rise in class struggle, both in Hong Kong and on the mainland. Ellen David Friedman, a long-time organizer of the National Education Association in Vermont, founding member of the state’s Progressive Party and member of the Labor Notes Policy Committee, has been working for the last decade with labor and union activists in Hong Kong and the mainland. She spoke with Ashley Smith about the dynamics and nature of these struggles.

‚No way North Korea‘ — DPRK refused entry to China-led AIIB (Emerging Markets)

North Korea approached China to join the new Beijing-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB) only to be summarily rebuffed by its chief economic and financial ally, Emerging Markets can reveal.
A senior envoy from the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) approached the presumptive inaugural president of the AIIB, Jin Liqun, probably in Beijing in February, only to be spurned, senior Chinese diplomatic sources said.
China’s message to North Korea was a straight-and-simple “no way”, the diplomat said, adding that China had asked for, and had failed to secure, a far more detailed breakdown of North Korea’s financial and economic picture, seen by the new China-led development bank as a basic first step in admitting the hermit state to its fold.

Sneha Shankar: China Clueless About Rejecting North Korea’s AIIB Application (International Business Times)

China said Tuesday it was not aware of rejecting North Korea’s offer to join the Beijing-led Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank (AIIB). A report last week had alleged that China let down Pyongyang’s intention to join the bank, citing the country’s fragile economy.

Andray Abrahamian: How North Korea’s hushed-up economy is hindering its development (Guardian)
Eric Talmadge: North Korea’s creeping economic reforms show signs of paying off (Guardian)

North Korea is trying to invigorate its hidebound economy by offering more control and possibly more personal rewards to key sectors of its workforce in the country’s biggest domestic policy experiment since leader Kim Jong-un assumed power.
The measures give managers the power to set salaries and hire and fire employees, and give farmers more of a stake in out-producing quotas. Some outside observers say they’re a far cry from the kind of change the North really needs, but they agree with North Korean economists who say it is starting to pay off in higher wages and increased yields.

Streik bei Cuiheng | Mindestreservesatz | Dokument Nr. 9
Apr 20th, 2015 by Gao

At the sharp end of the workers’ movement in China: The Zhongshan Cuiheng strike (China Labour Bulletin)

A month-long strike at a Japanese-owned bag manufacturer in the Pearl River Delta town of Zhongshan has been characterized by police violence, arrests and intimidation, and the absolute refusal of the boss to negotiate. Welcome to the sharp end of the workers’ movement in China.
The strike broke out in mid-March. The roughly 200 workers at Cuiheng Co. were unhappy at low-pay and the refusal of the company to pay social security and housing fund contributions, year-end bonuses and other benefits.

Tom Barnes, Kevin Lin: China’s growing labour movement offers hope for workers globally (Conversation)

Reuters: China’s central bank cuts reserve ratio (Guardian)

China’s central bank has cut the amount of cash that banks must hold as reserves on Sunday, the second industry-wide cut in two months, adding more liquidity to the world’s second-biggest economy to help spur bank lending and combat slowing growth.
The People’s Bank of China lowered the reserve requirement ratio (RRR) for all banks by 100 basis points to 18.5%, effective from Monday, the central bank said in a statement on its website.

Angus Grigg: China frees up $200b to stoke economy (Financial Review)

The RRR cut is expected to release around 1 trillion yuan ($208 billion) of capital into the economy.

China Steps Up Economy Help With Reduced Bank Reserve Ratios (Bloomberg)

The reserve-requirement ratio was lowered 1 percentage point Monday, the People’s Bank of China said. While that was the second reduction this year, the new level of 18.5 percent is still high by global standards. The cut will allow banks to boost lending by about 1.2 trillion yuan ($194 billion)…
The reserve ratio will be reduced by another percentage point for rural financial institutions, two additional percentage points for Agricultural Development Bank and a further 0.5 percentage point for banks with a certain level of loans to agriculture and small enterprises.
Those extra reductions give the move a “reformist flavor,” wrote Bloomberg economists Tom Orlik and Fielding Chen. Still, with growth weak and small companies most at risk, it’s understandable banks see state-owned firms as safer bets.
“As ever, the price of stronger growth is slower progress on structural reform,” they wrote.

Document 9: A ChinaFile Translation (ChinaFile)

This weekend, China’s leaders gather in Beijing for meetings widely expected to determine the shape of China’s economy, as well as the nation’s progress, over the next decade. What exactly the outcome of this Third Plenum of the Eighteenth Party Congress of the Chinese Communist Party will be remains shrouded in no small measure of secrecy, like most matters of high politics in China. President Xi Jinping has signaled that a significant new wave of economic liberalization may be in the works. But in the realm of political reform, Xi also has signaled a deep reluctance. In fact, many of the actions taken and techniques used under his year of leadership suggest a return to ideas and tactics that hark back to the days of Mao Zedong.
One such signal came during this past spring, when reports began to appear that the Party leadership was being urged to guard against seven political “perils,” including constitutionalism, civil society, “nihilistic” views of history, “universal values,” and the promotion of “the West’s view of media.” It also called on Party members to strengthen their resistance to “infiltration” by outside ideas, renew their commitment to work “in the ideological sphere,” and to handle with renewed vigilance all ideas, institutions, and people deemed threatening to unilateral Party rule. These warnings were enumerated in a communiqué circulated within the Party by its General Office in April, and, because they constituted the ninth such paper issued this year, have come to be known as “Document 9.”

Daniel A. Bell: Teaching ‘Western Values’ in China (New York Times)

Nobody is surprised that the Chinese government curbs “Western-style” civil and political liberties. But it may be news to some people that the government has recently called for the strengthening of Marxist ideology in universities and a ban on “teaching materials that disseminate Western values in our classrooms.” On the face of it, such regulations are absurd. It would mean banning not just the ideas of John Stuart Mill and John Rawls, but also those of such thinkers as Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels.

Reporters Without Borders reveals state secrets in reaction to Gao Yu’s sentence (Reporters Without Borders)

Brian Eyler: China’s new silk roads tie together 3 continents (China Dialogue)

China recently unveiled an action plan for its controversial One Belt, One Road initiative to link its economy with the rest of Asia, Africa, the Middle East and Europe. Known as the ‘new silk roads’, it combines new infrastructure networks of roads, railway lines, ports to strengthen trade, investment, and people-to-people cooperation.

Foxconn | Liu Han | Hongkong | Xinjiang
Feb 11th, 2015 by Gao

Yi Xi: Four years later, still a graveyard of Chinese youth (libcom.org)

In 2014, on the eve of China’s national day celebrations, scenes recalling those of four years ago appeared in Chinese headlines. Foxconn became known to the world four years ago when thirteen of its young workers jumped to their deaths in quick succession. The death of young Foxconn worker and poet Xu Lizhi reminded us that in this Fortune 500 company that produces some 40% of the world’s electronics, the cruelty and hopelessness of workers‘ situation has not changed. But most of us are unaware that Xu is not alone. At least five other workers, and likely more than that, have joined him this year. Many other workers have taken their own lives since the famous 13.

Yi Xi: Union Official Links Foxconn Deaths to Excessive Overtime (LaborNotes)

The All-China Federation of Trade Unions—never distinguished for its advocacy protecting workers—has taken the unusual step of publicly criticizing Foxconn for excessive overtime.
Foxconn, the largest private employer in China, employs 1.2 million workers and produces a huge share of the world’s electronics.
On February 2, ACFTU Party Secretary Guo Jun publically criticized Foxconn’s excessive overtime work arrangements. Guo connected these problems to the series of worker suicides and deaths by overwork at its massive factory complex.
In an open letter response on February 3, Foxconn had the audacity to claim that “there is no relationship between constant overtime and incidents of death from overwork or suicide,” and referred to its infamous 2010 serial suicides as “unfortunate incidents with a few individual workers.”

Chun Han Wong: China Labor Ties Fray as Grievances Rise, Economic Growth Slows (Wall Street Journal)

For four years, a labor-research center here in the heart of China’s southern manufacturing belt helped to drive scholarship and debate on industrial relations in the world’s second-largest economy.
Then late last year, the International Center for Joint Labor Research, the first institute of its kind in China, was shut down, with little warning or explanation, people familiar with the situation said.
Its demise has alarmed labor experts, including some union officials, who see it as a setback for industrial relations just as China is dealing with rising worker grievances and slowing economic growth.

China executes mining tycoon Liu Han, who had links to ex-security tsar Zhou Yongkang (South China Morning Post, auch via Google News)

A Chinese mining tycoon linked to former security tsar Zhou Yongkang has been executed, according to state media.
Sichuan native Liu Han, 48, was found guilty of 13 charges – including murder, organising casinos, running a mafia-style gang and illegally selling firearms – and sentenced to death in late May.
He was executed on Monday morning together with his younger brother Liu Wei and three associates, Tang Xianbing, Zhang Donghua and Tian Xianwei, Xianning city intermediate court in Hubei province said.

AP: China executes mining tycoon Liu Han (Guardian)

Ernest Kao: Pepper spray and arrests as Tuen Mun parallel trader protest ends in chaos (South China Morning Post; auch via Google News)

Justine Drennan: Is China Making Its Own Terrorism Problem Worse? (Foreign Policy)

Beijing says radicalized members of its Uighur minority are terrorists with ties to the Islamic State and al Qaeda, but its repressive policies may be helping to fuel the violence.

Und außerdem:
Grace Tsoi: Taipei’s Fiery New Mayor Knows Whose Culture Is Best (Foreign Policy)

“For the [world’s] four Chinese-speaking regions — Taiwan, Singapore, Hong Kong, and Mainland China — the longer the colonization, the more advanced a place is. It’s rather embarrassing. Singapore is better than Hong Kong; Hong Kong is better than Taiwan; Taiwan is better than the mainland. I’m speaking in terms of culture. I’ve been to Vietnam and mainland China. Even though the Vietnamese are seemingly poor, they always stop in front of red traffic lights and walk in front of green ones. Even though mainland China’s GDP is higher than that of Vietnam, if you ask me about culture, the Vietnamese culture is superior.”

David Volodzko: Was Colonialism Good for Asia? (Diplomat)

In controversial remarks, Taipei’s new mayor argued that colonialism is the secret to “more advanced” culture today.

Urbanisierung | Wachstum | Lateinamerika
Jan 30th, 2015 by Gao

Eli Friedman: The Urbanization of the Chinese Working Class (Jacobin)

China has problems. Not despite thirty-five years of record-breaking growth, but because of it. The country’s dependence on exports and investment-led development has resulted in stark inequality, underconsumption, over-investment, disappearing arable land, exorbitant housing prices, and a looming environmental catastrophe. This leaves China increasingly vulnerable to a number of potential crises: external economic shocks, housing market collapse, mass defaults on public debt, and fits of social unrest.
What, then, might ensure the stability of Chinese capitalism for another generation?
For the state, a big part of the answer is urbanization. In the recently released National New Urbanization Plan (2014–2020), the central government calls for more than 100 million people to move to cities by 2020, pushing China’s urban population to 60 percent. The plan sets out admirable goals such as an expansion of public housing, education, and health services, a reduction in carbon emissions and other environmentally destructive activities, and preservation of agricultural land through limits on sprawl.

Jonathan Kaiman, Heather Stewart: Hard times return as China bids to bring its economic miracle to an end (Guardian)

Beijing insists slow growth is part of a plan to bring years of explosive expansion under control. But the global slowdown may make it hard to soft-land an economy still hooked on exports…
Official figures published last week showed that China’s GDP expanded by 7.4% in 2014. That was a significant drop from the 7.7% seen in 2013, and the weakest rate of growth since 1990…

Ralf Streck: China mischt den „Hinterhof“ der USA auf (Telepolis)

Nicht nur der Brics-Staat Russland treibt im Zuge der Sanktionspolitik der USA und Europas verstärkt Projekte in Lateinamerika voran (…). Den großen Wurf will nun das große Brics-Land China in der Region machen, die in den USA so gerne als „Hinterhof“ bezeichnet wird. In Washington ist man nicht sehr erfreut darüber, dass allein China im kommenden Jahrzehnt rund 250 Milliarden US-Dollar in Mittel- und Südamerika und der Karibik investieren will, womit sich das Handelsvolumen auf eine halbe Billion verdoppeln soll. Wichtigster Handelspartner Brasiliens (ebenfalls ein Brics-Staat) ist schon jetzt nicht mehr die USA, sondern China. Und das gilt auch schon für Chile und Peru. Über diese Entwicklung ist das Imperium im Norden besorgt. Das Tauwetter zwischen den USA und Kuba muss in diesem Zusammenhang gesehen werden.

Nebenbei:
Geoffrey Crothall: People’s Daily tries and fails to understand problem of wage arrears in China (China Labour Bulletin)
Ian Johnson: The Rat Tribe of Beijing (AlJazeera)
APA: Bürgermeister: Peking „wirklich nicht lebenswert“ (Standard)
Reuters: China stellt Milizen an der Grenze zu Nordkorea auf (Standard)
Catherine Phillips: $242 Billion High-Speed Beijing-Moscow Rail Link Approved (Newsweek)
APA: Chinesen bauen Bostoner U-Bahn (Standard)

Apple
Mrz 2nd, 2014 by Gao

Well-polished Apple’s CSR report is just another fairytale for workers (SACOM)

Despite respectable quarterly revenues of US$57.6 billion and a net quarterly profit of US$13.1 billion in the first quarter of its fiscal year of 2014, the company is unwilling to share its success with frontline workers – those who turn its ideas into real products. Apple’s newly published Corporate Supplier Responsibility (CSR) Progress Report projects an ideal workplace at Apple suppliers, yet we doubt workers are enjoying any benefit at all.

Lohnquote | Finanzsektor | Luftverschmutzung | Korruption
Jan 10th, 2014 by Gao

Hao Qi: The Labor Share Question in China (Monthly Review)

In the past two decades, China’s economic growth has been increasingly dependent on investment. To maintain the growth of investment, China must sustain a fairly high rate of profit, and the fall in labor’s share has been seen as a crucial factor to sustain profitability. Using a raw measure of labor’s share—the compensation of employees as a percent of GDP—…, labor’s share has experienced a major decline from 51.4 percent in 1995 to 42.4 percent in 2007. If we use different denominators to replace GDP in order to exclude the impact of depreciation and taxes…, the general trend does not change much. After the outbreak of the global crisis in 2007, China’s growth slowed down and workers’ struggles against poor living and working conditions were surging… As a result, labor’s share returned to 45.6 percent in 2012.

J.B. hat dazu noch folgenden Link geschickt:
Carsten A. Holz, Aaron Mehrotra: Wage and price dynamics in a large emerging economy: The case of China (PDF; Suomen Pankin siirtymätalouksien tutkimuslaitos / BOFIT)

Reuters: Clear and present challenge (South China Morning Post)

Beijing’s desire to develop a municipal bond market centre hindered by lack of disclosure by local governments on assets, cash and liabilities.

Malcolm Moore: China’s ‚airpocalypse‘ kills 350,000 to 500,000 each year (Telegraph)

The equivalent of the population of Bristol dies each year in China because of lethal air pollution, according to Chen Zhu, who was the country’s Health minister until last year…
However, the estimate … endorsed – that air pollution causes 350,000 to 500,000 premature deaths each year – was far lower than another estimate in a study published in the same magazine the year before that air pollution was responsible for 1.2 million premature deaths in 2010 alone and the loss of 25 million disability-adjusted life-years.

China media: Corruption in focus (BBC)

Media in China are focusing on more high-profile corruption cases, an enforced cremation and director Zhang Yimou’s apology for violating the one-child policy.

Cao Zhenglu
Nov 17th, 2013 by Gao

Yan Hairong: Rethinking Is Not Demonizing (Monthly Review)

Cao Zhenglu is a well-known contemporary Chinese realist writer. His stories “Na’er” (“There,” about the tragic experience of a union cadre in a state-owned enterprise undergoing “structural reform”) and “Nihong” (“Neon,” about the life and death of a laid-off woman worker) expose the predicament of Chinese workers in the reform period. His novel Wen cangmang (Asking the Boundless—an allusion to a line from one of Mao’s poems, “I ask, on this boundless land, who rules over man’s destiny”) has a Taiwanese-owned factory in Shenzhen as the central theater, around which different characters struggle to understand and play their roles in the larger context of “investment.” This novel has been celebrated as “the first novel that uses Chinese reality to explain Das Kapital.” His most recent novel, Minzhu ke (Lessons in Democracy [Taipei: Taiwan shehui yanjiu zazhishe, 2013]), initiates a further reflection on the Cultural Revolution. Cao’s novel re-narrates the Cultural Revolution in terms of its historical unfolding—its aims, processes, contradictions, and significance, and links this story with the contemporary problem of China’s path today.

曹征路:那儿‍‍ (PDF; 清华大学/archive.org)

Außenpolitik und Innenpolitik
Mai 20th, 2013 by Gao

J.B. hat eine Debatte über diese Artikel angeregt:
Susanna Bastaroli: Expertin: „China will nicht so zahnlos wie die Europäer werden“ (Presse)

Laut China-Expertin Weigelin-Schwierdzik dienen Chinas Kriegsdrohungen in Asien der Legitimation einer zunehmend schwächelnden KP. Die Dynamik könnte außer Kontrolle geraten.

Angela Köhler: Wie Japans Umgang mit der Geschichte die Zukunft blockiert (Presse)

Immer wieder sorgt der undiplomatische Umgang japanischer Politiker mit der schmutzigen Vergangenheit für heftige Empörung in den früheren Opferstaaten.

Wolfgang Greber: Die Angst der amerikanischen Admiräle (Presse)

Noch sind die USA im Verbund mit Alliierten wie Japan und Australien Herren des Pazifiks. An deren Thron rüttelt China aber gewaltig.

Zwei Literaturhinweise von H.K.; zunächst zum Thema:
David Shambaugh: China Goes Global. Oxford University Press, 2013.
Ebenfalls lesenswert:
David Shambaugh: China’s Communist Party: Atrophy and Adaptation. University of California Press, 2009.

Arbeiterklasse und Partei
Mai 16th, 2013 by Gao

Fred Engst: An Investigation of the Relationship Between the Working Class and Its Party Under Socialism / 阳和平: 社会主义时期工人阶级和其政党关系的探析 附录:井冈山精神的三个支点:士兵委员会被忽视了 (China Left Review)

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