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Zahlenmystik
Sep 12th, 2017 by Gao

关键词指示习近平“7·26”重要讲话内容(新华网)

2个“牢牢把握”
3个“事关”
5个“什么”
9个“我们”
8个“更”
3个“意味着”
2个“必须”2个“要”

David Bandurski: The Arithmetic of Party-Speak (Medium)

As anyone whose profession it is to parse the language of Chinese Communist Party can tell you, reading Chinese discourse is a frustrating and bewildering exercise, full of rigid and ritualistic formulations that come and go, ebb and flow. Sum up Party-speak with a jingle and it might go something like this:

Deng Xiaoping had Four Basic Principles,
Jiang Zemin, Three Represents
Xi Jinping has Two Undeniables.
And nothing at all makes sense.

Ungleichheit
Sep 6th, 2017 by Gao

Sidney Leng: China’s dirty little secret: its growing wealth gap (South China Morning Post)

China’s wealth gap has widened for the first time in five years, a fact Beijing chose not to mention in this year’s economic report.
The Gini coefficient, a gauge ranging between zero and one that measures income equality, increased slightly to 0.465 last year, from 0.462 in 2015, according to data released by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) this week…
A study from Peking University last year found that the poorest 25 per cent of mainland households owned just 1 per cent of the country’s aggregate wealth, while the richest 1 per cent owned a third of the wealth.

He Huifeng: In China’s richest province, a yawning gap exists between the haves and the have-nots (South China Morning Post)

The coexistence of great wealth and abject poverty in Guangdong shows why narrowing the income gap is a priority of China’s leadership…
Shenzhen’s per capita GDP is now on par with Portugal’s, but the per capita GDP in Qingyuan … was less than a quarter of Shenzhen’s last year, and lower than the national average. Eleven other cities in Guangdong … were also below the national average last year, and in Meizhou, Heyuan, Shanwei and Yunfu per capita GDP was even lower than in Guizhou, China’s most impoverished province…
Guangdong’s wealth gap has grown in the past couple of years, according to Zheng Zizhen, a sociologist and economist with the Guangdong Academy of Social Sciences, a government think-tank in Guangzhou.
“The wealth of families in [major] cities is soaring, driven by the rapid growth in residential property prices,” he said. “But the poorer areas of Guangdong lack the ability to attract enough capital and talent to bring an industrial boom.”
By the numbers, the Pearl River Delta, which includes some of China’s most developed cities, including Guangzhou, Shenzhen, Dongguan and Foshan, covers only 23 per cent of the province but last year it accounted for 79.3 per cent of Guangdong’s economic output, according to official data, up from 79.1 in 2015. The province’s 12 impoverished cities reported average GDP growth of 7.4 per cent last year, according to the provincial development and reform commission, while the Pearl River Delta’s grew by 8.3 per cent.

Zhang Pinghui: Why Xi Jinping cares so much about ending poverty in China: the political significance behind the campaign (South China Morning Post)

China Quarterly
Aug 30th, 2017 by Gao

Ian Johnson: Cambridge University Press Removes Academic Articles on Chinese Site / 迫于审查压力,剑桥大学出版社在华删除敏感内容 (New York Times)

One of the world’s oldest and most respected publishing houses, Cambridge University Press, has bowed to pressure from Beijing and removed sensitive content on its site in China.

Echo Huang: Forced to comply or shut down, Cambridge University Press’s China Quarterly removes 300 articles in China (Quartz)
Cambridge University Press statement regarding content in The China Quarterly (Cambridge University Press)

We can confirm that we received an instruction from a Chinese import agency to block individual articles from The China Quarterly within China. We complied with this initial request to remove individual articles, to ensure that other academic and educational materials we publish remain available to researchers and educators in this market.
We are aware that other publishers have had entire collections of content blocked in China until they have enabled the import agencies to block access to individual articles. We do not, and will not, proactively censor our content and will only consider blocking individual items (when requested to do so) when the wider availability of content is at risk.

Alex Linder: Cambridge University Press bows to Chinese censors, removes 300 ‚politically sensitive‘ articles (Shanghaiist)

On Friday, the CUP said that more than 300 articles had been scrubbed from the China Quarterly’s Chinese website following a request from Chinese censors, which threatened to have its site shut down. Apparently, the articles had been chosen for deletion not through a careful reading and examination of the text, but by quick searches for certain naughty words.

Liste der entfernten Artikel: www.cambridge.org/… (PDF, Cambridge University Press)
Tim Pringle: Message from the editor, The China Quarterly (PDF, Cambridge University Press)

The China Quarterly wishes to express its deep concern and disappointment that over 300 articles
and reviews published in the journal have been censored by a Chinese import agency. We note too
that this restriction of academic freedom is not an isolated move but an extension of policies that
have narrowed the space for public engagement and discussion across Chinese society.

Tim Pringle: China’s bid to block my journal’s articles is a new attack on academic freedom (Guardian)

Cambridge University Press was asked to suppress articles in China Quarterly. It has now resisted, but it is a worrying development

The China Quarterly follow-up statement (Cambridge University Press)

Following a clear order from its Chinese importer, Cambridge University Press reluctantly took the decision to block, within China, 315 articles in The China Quarterly. This decision was taken as a temporary measure pending discussion with the academic leadership of the University of Cambridge, and pending a scheduled meeting with the Chinese importer in Beijing.
The academic leadership of the University has now reviewed this action in advance of the meeting in China later this week. Academic freedom is the overriding principle on which the University of Cambridge is based. Therefore, while this temporary decision was taken in order to protect short-term access in China to the vast majority of the Press’s journal articles, the University’s academic leadership and the Press have agreed to reinstate the blocked content, with immediate effect, so as to uphold the principle of academic freedom on which the University’s work is founded.

Cambridge University Press battles censorship in China (Economist)

This is not the only recent case. Censors have demanded the removal of about 100 articles in the Journal of Asian Studies, also published by CUP. The Communist Party used to allow scholars a modest latitude in their fields of research, permitting, for example, access to foreign academic publications that would be banned from general circulation. But in March the customs authorities tightened rules on importing books. Chinese academics complain that risk-averse librarians will not now order even innocuous scholarly works for fear of offending the customs service.

Cambridge University Press Refuses to Comply With Second Chinese Takedown Request (Radio Free Asia)

Chinese censors have made another request to a top academic journal published by Cambridge University Press (CUP) for the removal of online content from a website hosted in China, the Association for Asian Studies said in a statement.
CUP has refused the request from the State Administration of Press and Publications, Radio, Film and Television (SAPPRFT), which requested the removal of some 100 articles from the website of the Journal of Asian Studies.
The Association for Asian Studies (AAS) said the request was similar to one made by Chinese authorities to CUP, prompting the publishing house to take down some 300 articles from the China website of the China Quarterly academic journal last week.

China Quarterly debate a matter of principle (Global Times)

As the readership of the China Quarterly is limited, there will be little impact over the CUP withdrawing some articles. The Western media, which must have other things to pay attention to, seems more sensitive than some relevant Chinese authorities.
China has a number of laws and regulations concerning cyber security. The China Quarterly is published overseas. There is no overlap between the two sides. The CUP can enjoy academic freedom under British law. But overseas media reports that it set up a server in China hoping to explore the Chinese market, which has to abide by the Chinese law. As long as the Chinese request was made in accordance with the law, there is no reason to be critical.
China has blocked some information on foreign websites that it deems harmful to Chinese society. This is for the sake of China’s security and is within the scope of China’s sovereignty. China is also trying to strike a balance between opening itself up and preventing harmful external information from penetrating into Chinese society, to realize steady and sustainable progress.
Western institutions have the freedom to choose. If they don’t like the Chinese way, they can stop engaging with us. If they think China’s Internet market is so important that they can’t miss out, they need to respect Chinese law and adapt to the Chinese way. Now it seems that some Western institutions would like to make adjustments, while some forces are unhappy about it.

AFP: At Beijing book fair, publishers admit to self-censorship to keep texts on Chinese market (South China Morning Post)

Tiananmen, Tibet and Taiwan are off limits for companies wanting to sell their books in China, publisher says

James A. Millward: Open Letter to Cambridge University Press about its censorship of the China Quarterly (Medium)

Cambridge University Press’s decision to censor the journal China Quarterly as it is viewed online in China is a craven, shameful and destructive concession to the PRC’s growing censorship regime. It is also needless.

Christopher Balding: Petition Cambridge University Press Not to Censor China Articles (Change.org)

As academics and China focused academics, we are disturbed by the request by the Chinese government for Cambridge University Press to censor articles from the China Quarterly. As academics, we believe in the free and open exchange of ideas and information on all topics not just those we agree with. It is disturbing to academics and universities world wide that China is attempting to export its censorship on topics that do not fit its preferred narrative.
We call upon Cambridge University Press to refuse the censorship request not just for the China Quarterly but on any other topics, journals or publication that have been requested by the Chinese government.
If Cambridge University Press acquiesces to the demands of the Chinese government, we as academics and universities reserve the right to pursue other actions including boycotts of Cambridge University Press and related journals.

Maev Kennedy, Tom Phillips: Cambridge University Press backs down over China censorship (Guardian)

Publisher will reinstate articles to which it blocked online access in China in the face of international protests by academics

Simon Denyer: In reversal, Cambridge University Press restores articles after China censorship row (Washington Post)

Cambridge University Press reversed course Monday after facing a major backlash from academics over its decision to bow to Chinese government demands to censor an important academic journal.

Joseph Hincks: A Top Publisher Bowed to China’s Censors. Then it Bowed to Outraged Academics (Time)

Margaret Lewis, Andrew J. Nathan, Pamela Kyle Crossley, Edward Friedman, Yifu Dong, Joseph W. Esherick: Should Publications Compromise to Remain in China? (China File)

Freedom of expression may have won this battle against state censorship, but if state interference continues what compromises is it permissable for academic institutions and publications to make to stay inside China?

Jonathan Sullivan: Censorship and China Studies (China Policy Institute)

CUP’s decision to accede to the demands is a misguided, if understandable, economic decision that does harm to the Press’ reputation and integrity (whether there is any integrity in the business of academic publishing is another story).

In diesem Zusammenhang siehe auch:
中华人民共和国网络安全法(全国人民代表大会)
Inoffizielle Übersetzung ins Englische: 2016 Cybersecurity Law (China Law Translate)

Article 1: This law is formulated so as to ensure network security, to safeguard cyberspace sovereignty, national security and the societal public interest, to protect the lawful rights and interests of citizens, legal persons and other organizations, and to promote the healthy development of economic and social informatization.
Article 2: This law applies with respect to the construction, operation, maintenance and usage of networks, as well as network security supervision and management within the mainland territory of the People’s Republic of China.

People’s Republic of China Cybersecurity Law: A Preliminary Overview for Western Companies (National Law Review)

The PRC Cybersecurity Law maintains the trend from elective regimes toward mandatory cybersecurity standards and requirements. As seen in the EU, with the recently adopted General Data Protection Regulation framework, and in the US, with proposed federal regulations of financial institutions to address the risk of “cyber contagion,” global actors are flexing their regulatory and national security powers to address the threat of cyber-attacks in an increasingly interconnected world.

Neue Seidenstraße
Aug 23rd, 2017 by Gao

Bernd Vasari: Ein Zug wird kommen (Wiener Zeitung)

Nach jahrelangen Forderungen der Wirtschaftskammer gibt es nun auch von Infrastrukturminister Jörg Leichtfried (SPÖ) ein Bekenntnis zum Ausbau der Breitspurbahn nach Wien. „Ich will Österreich zur Logistikdrehscheibe in Europa machen“, sagt er. Die derzeitige Endstation befindet sich im 400 Kilometer entfernten Kosice. Bei einem technisch möglichen Baubeginn in sechs Jahren könnte die Strecke bis zum Jahr 2033 fertiggestellt werden. Österreich wäre dann über die Schiene bis nach China verbunden. …
Bei einem von Chinas Staatschef Xi Jinping einberufenen Seidenstraßen-Gipfel im Mai wurde Österreich nicht hochrangig, sondern nur durch die Botschafterin vertreten. Im Gegensatz zu Ungarn, wo Ministerpräsident Viktor Orban anwesend war.

Zhang Junhua: China – eine Friedensmacht? (Neue Zürcher Zeitung)

Mit einer anvisierten Investition von mehreren Billionen Dollar weltweit ist Chinas Seidenstrassen-Projekt einer der ambitioniertesten Pläne der Menschheitsgeschichte. Sicherlich ist der ursprüngliche Ansatz des Vorhabens auf Chinas strategisches Eigeninteresse fokussiert: Durch den massiven Aufbau der Infrastruktur will man das Problem der Überkapazität chinesischer Industrieproduktion lösen. Mit der Zeit hat sich jedoch eine Eigendynamik entwickelt, die positive Nebeneffekte zeitigt. Die immer wichtiger werdende Rolle Chinas als friedensstiftender Macht ist ein Beispiel dafür.

Neue Seidenstraße: China plant riesigen Bahnbau durch Malaysia (Industrie-Magazin)

Peking will elf Milliarden Euro in den Bau einer neuen Bahnverbindung durch Malaysia investieren. Das Projekt soll Teil der geplanten „Neuen Seidenstraße“ werden.

Norbert Paulsen: Comeback der Seidenstraße (DVZ)
Hermannus Pfeiffer: Offener Handel auf Chinesisch (Frankfurter Rundschau)

Während die USA sich unter Donald Trump abschotten, nutzt Chinas Präsident Xi das Vakuum und wirbt für mehr wirtschaftliche Zusammenarbeit.

Nicht wirklich zum Thema:
Doris Griesser: Nachrichten von der Seidenstraße (Standard)

Hannes Fellner gehört zur exklusiven Gruppe jener Menschen, die des Tocharischen mächtig sind. Wer noch nie von der Existenz einer solchen Sprache gehört hat, möge sich die Bildungslücke verzeihen: Immerhin hat man diesen ausgestorbenen Sprachzweig der indogermanischen Sprachfamilie erst kurz vor dem Ersten Weltkrieg entdeckt. Und zwar im Zuge militärisch-archäologischer Expeditionen ins damals politisch geschwächte China, wo in der heutigen Region Xinjiang im zweiten Jahrhundert n. Chr. zahllose buddhistische Gemeinden und Klöster entlang der Seidenstraße entstanden waren.

Afrika
Aug 23rd, 2017 by Gao

Kartik Jayaram, Omid Kassiri, Irene Yuan Sun: The closest look yet at Chinese economic engagement in Africa (McKinsey)

Field interviews with more than 1,000 Chinese companies provide new insights into Africa–China business relationships.

Mozi
Jul 2nd, 2017 by Gao

區龍宇:【五一專題】公元前的華夏工黨(無國界社運) Au Loong-yu: China’s Ancient Labor Party (Solidarity)

我說的是墨子和他的團體。
台灣學者王讚源說,先秦諸子,幾乎全部集中在社會、政治、倫理等價值觀方面,只有墨子最類似西方標準的哲學家,他的學問除了上述之外,橫跨形上學、知識論和道德哲學,也是西方型的科學家和哲學家。[註1] 鄭杰文、張倩兩位學者則說:短短不足一萬字的墨經,涵蓋了哲學、邏輯學、心理學、政治學、倫理學、教育學、自然科學等,稱得上是一部百科全書。[註2] 古代教育缺乏科技教育及生產事業的教育。孔子便罵想學耕種的樊遲為小人。墨子一書突出之處,也在於它包含非常多的科學和技術的知識。

By “China’s ancient Labor Party” I am referring to Mozi and his group. Although his group disappeared entirely from history at the latest during the end of the Warring State period (475–221 BC), his book, also called Mozi, although largely forgotten was able to survive through millennia. He was an outstanding thinker and what is more a militant, grounded on a well-defined program, who fought on behalf of the toilers in ancient China.

Militärstützpunkt in Pakistan?
Jun 12th, 2017 by Gao

Reuters: Pentagon report singles out Pakistan as home of future Chinese military base (Dawn)

A Pentagon report released on Tuesday singled out Pakistan as a possible location for a future Chinese military base, as it forecast that Beijing would likely build more bases overseas after establishing a facility in the African nation of Djibouti.
The prediction came in a 97-page annual report to Congress that saw advances throughout the Chinese military in 2016, funded by robust defence spending that the Pentagon estimated exceeded $180 billion. That is higher than China’s official defence budget figure of $140.4 billion…
Chinese Foreign Ministry Spokeswoman Hua Chunying declined to comment on possible overseas bases but said that China and Pakistan were close friends that conduct „mutually beneficial cooperation“ in a variety of fields.
While talking about the country’s operating overseas defence projects, Hua said the bases were there to improve navigation safety and assistance for fishermen as well as „to safeguard China’s independent sovereignty and territorial integrity. It is a legitimate right of a sovereign state.”

Neil Connor: China likely to set up military base in Pakistan – Pentagon (Telegraph)

China could build a new base in Pakistan as part of a global expansion of its military facilities, a US report says.
The report from the Pentagon predicts China will expand its military prowess after the construction of its first overseas naval base in Djibouti, a strategic location at the southern entrance to the Red Sea on the route to the Suez Canal.

Benjamin Haas: China to set up military bases in Pakistan – Pentagon report (Guardian)

China is set to expand its military capabilities across the globe, with new overseas bases in countries like Pakistan as the world’s largest army seeks an increased role in defending China’s interest abroad, a report by the Pentagon has said…
“China most likely will seek to establish additional military bases in countries with which it has a longstanding friendly relationship and similar strategic interests, such as Pakistan,” the report said.
“This initiative, along with regular naval vessel visits to foreign ports, both reflects and amplifies China’s growing influence, extending the reach of its armed forces.”
Last year China began building its first overseas base in the African nation of Djibouti, already home to Camp Lemonnier, a large US instillation responsible for counter terrorism operations in the Persian Gulf and east and north Africa.

Franz-Stefan Gady: Chinese Warships visit Pakistan (Diplomat)
Никита Коваленко: Сближение Китая и Пакистана добавит проблем России (Взгляд)

Китай и Пакистан вывели свое партнерство на новый уровень, явно дав понять это яркими символическими шагами, одним из которых стал первый совместный военный парад. Это событие в столь далеком, казалось бы, регионе может стать серьезным вызовом и для России. Дело в том, что сближение Пекина и Исламабада крайне нервирует одну из самых дружественных Москве стран – Индию.

F. M. Shakil: US alarm at possible Chinese base in Pakistan ignores context (Asia Times)

The Pentagon’s assessment this week that Pakistan may be set to host a Chinese military base is likely to have caused more of a commotion in New Delhi than in Islamabad. The fact is that Pakistan has provided strategic defense facilities to China for some time; indeed, such provision is key to the US$57 billion China-Pakistan Economic Corridor (CPEC).

Vinay Kaura: Understanding India’s response to China’s Belt and Road (Asia Times)

New Delhi decided to skip the much-publicized Belt and Road Forum in Beijing, framing the One Belt, One Road (OBOR) initiative as a bad deal that undermines India’s core interests. Is this position in conflict with India’s simultaneous aspirations for economic cooperation and peaceful co-existence with China?

Doug Tsuruoka: China’s Obor could keep African economies moving (Asia Times)

China’s bold One Belt One Road (Obor) initiative to forge an integrated economic zone that stretches from Central Asia to Europe has an African component that could energize nations such as Nigeria and Tanzania at a time when they need a lift. Growth in sub-Saharan Africa hit its lowest level in two decades last year due to unstable oil prices, inflation and political volatility…
Obor has a firm beachhead in Africa. China surpassed the US as Africa’s largest trading partner in 2009…

Bildungswesen in Xinjiang
Jun 6th, 2017 by Gao

Die chinesische Regierung hat seit einigen Jahren Absolvent_innen der sogenannten „zweisprachigen“ Mittelschulen systematisch privilegiert. (Das sind Mittelschulen, deren Zweisprachigkeit darin besteht, dass die Muttersprache der Schüler_innen nicht Chinesisch, die Unterrichtssprache jedoch ausschließlich Chinesisch ist.)

Adrian Zenz: Problematic Privilege in Xinjiang (Diplomat)

On April 12, China’s Ministry of Education announced that the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region (XUAR), the restive Muslim province in China’s far west, would no longer provide added points to university entrance exam applicants from bilingual educational tracks. Bilingual education was established in 2004 with the aim to promote Chinese language education among the region’s ethnic minorities, especially the Uyghurs. In the bilingual system, the role of the minority language is typically restricted to that of a single language subject, creating a highly immersive Chinese language environment.

2016年新疆高考各批次录取分数线正式公布(新疆维吾尔自治区教育厅 / Xinjiang Uyƣur Aptonom Rayonluⱪ maarip nazariti)

6月26日,自治区招生办公布了2016年新疆普通高考各批次最低投档控制分数线。

第二代民族政策探讨(中国民族宗教网)

第二代民族政策是清华大学国情研究中心主任胡鞍钢与胡联合,以及北京大学社会学系教授马戎提出来的民族政策思路,倡导推行淡化族群意识和56个民族的观念,强化中华民族的身份意识和身份认同,推进中华民族一体化和国家认同的政策。第二代民族政策的指导思想是效仿美国的民族大熔炉模式,不容许任何一个族群生活在一块属于自己的历史疆域内。

James Leibold: Ethnic Policy in China: Is Reform Inevitable? Policy Studies 68 (2013) (PDF, East-West Centre)

There are … signs that interethnic conflict may be growing as free-market forces and increased interethnic communication and mobility intensifies ethnic-based competition… Amid this perception of crisis, Chinese academics, policymakers, and other thought-leaders are engaged in unprecedented debate over the future direction of their country’s ethnic policies… A “melting pot” model is increasingly being accepted as better for de-emphasizing ethnic consciousness, improving ethnic relations and solidifying national unity in the long run… Barry Sautman argues that [these] proposals to “curb minority rights” “emanate from a small number of Chinese academics” yet “reflect a prominent strand of thinking about ethnic policies”.

Ma Rong: The development of minority education and the practice of bilingual education in Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. (PDF, Case Western Reserve University)

Spionage
Mai 22nd, 2017 by Gao

Mark Mazzetti, Adam Goldman, Michael S. Schmidt, Matt Apuzzo: Killing C.I.A. Informants, China Crippled U.S. Spying Operations (New York Times)

The Chinese government systematically dismantled C.I.A. spying operations in the country starting in 2010, killing or imprisoning more than a dozen sources over two years and crippling intelligence gathering there for years afterward.
Current and former American officials described the intelligence breach as one of the worst in decades. It set off a scramble in Washington’s intelligence and law enforcement agencies to contain the fallout, but investigators were bitterly divided over the cause. Some were convinced that a mole within the C.I.A. had betrayed the United States. Others believed that the Chinese had hacked the covert system the C.I.A. used to communicate with its foreign sources. Years later, that debate remains unresolved.

Xinjiang
Mai 22nd, 2017 by Gao

Christian Shepherd, Ben Blanchard: China sets rules on beards, veils to combat extremism in Xinjiang (Reuters)

China will step up a campaign against religious extremism in the far western region of Xinjiang on Saturday by implementing a range of measures, including prohibiting „abnormal“ beards, the wearing of veils in public places and the refusal to watch state television…
A number of bans on select „extremist behaviours“ had previously been introduced in some places in Xinjiang, including stopping people with head scarves, veils and long beards from boarding buses in at least one city.
The new rules expand the list and apply them to the whole region.

防新生儿取名涉恐 新疆列名单限制(Radio Free Asia)

中国正在新疆加强打击所谓“宗教极端主义”的力度,网络上日前流传一份新疆当局限制维族取名列表,乌鲁木齐的公安人员向本台证实,具有“分裂”与“宗教”意味的名字都已被禁,新生儿取名违规将不能上户口。
这份标题为“少数民族取名限制”的名单中包含29个名字,包括维族常见的吉哈德、穆哈买提、伊玛木、萨达木、阿吉、麦迪娜等,备注显示有”公安限制的起名“和“工作中发现的名字”。
记者就致电乌鲁木齐市的一个派出所,接线人员证实了内部有规定不能给新生儿取带有宗教和分裂意味的名字,连名字中带“伊斯兰”、“古兰经”、“麦加”或中亚地名也被禁止,具体由户口申报处受过培训的人判断,违规的名字不给上户口。

China Bans ‚Extreme‘ Islamic Baby Names Among Xinjiang’s Uyghurs (Voice of America)

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