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Gesellschaftliche Bonität
Juni 28th, 2018 by Gao

Rogier Creemers: China’s Social Credit System: An Evolving Practice of Control (Social Science Research Network)

The Social Credit System (SCS) is perhaps the most prominent manifestation of the Chinese government’s intention to reinforce legal, regulatory and policy processes through the application of information technology. Yet its organizational specifics have not yet received academic scrutiny. This paper will identify the objectives, perspectives and mechanisms through which the Chinese government has sought to realise its vision of „social credit“. Reviewing the system’s historical evolution, institutional structure, central and local implementation, and relationship with the private sector, this paper concludes that it is perhaps more accurate to conceive of the SCS as an ecosystem of initiatives broadly sharing a similar underlying logic, than a fully unified and integrated machine for social control. It also finds that, intentions with regards to big data and artificial intelligence notwithstanding, the SCS remains a relatively crude tool. This may change in the future, and this paper suggests the dimensions to be studied in order to assess this evolution.

Jack Karsten, Darrell M. West: China’s social credit system spreads to more daily transactions (Brookings)

In May, enforcement of China’s social credit system spread to the travel industry, restricting millions of Chinese citizens with low social credit scores from purchasing plane and train tickets. China has stated that all 1.35 billion of its citizens will be subject to its social credit system by 2020, and travel restrictions for low-scoring citizens is only one of many to come. The system resembles an American credit score, but more than just low credit limits and high interest rates, a poor Chinese social credit score can lead to bans from travel, certain schools, luxury hotels, government positions, and even dating apps.

Samantha Hoffman: Social Credit. Technology-enhanced authoritarian control with global consequences (Australian Strategic Policy Institute)

China’s ‘social credit system’ (SCS)—the use of big-data collection and analysis to monitor, shape and rate behaviour via economic and social processes1—doesn’t stop at China’s borders. Social credit regulations are already being used to force businesses to change their language to accommodate the political demands of the Chinese Communist Party. Analysis of the system is often focused on a ‘credit record’ or a domestic ranking system for individuals; however, the system is much more complicated and expansive than that. It’s part of a complex system of control—being augmented with technology—that’s embedded in the People’s Republic of China’s strategy of social management and economic development. It will affect international businesses and overseas Chinese communities and has the potential to interfere directly in the sovereignty of other nations. Evidence of this reach was seen recently when the Chinese Civil Aviation Administration accused international airlines of ‘serious dishonesty’ for allegedly violating Chinese laws when they listed Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau on their international websites.

Kelsey Munro: China’s social credit system ‘could interfere in other nations’ sovereignty’ (Guardian)

[A] new report by US China scholar Samantha Hoffman for the ASPI International Cyber Policy Institute in Canberra claims the system’s impact beyond China’s borders has not been well understood, and is in fact already shaping the behaviour of foreign businesses in line with Chinese Communist party preferences…
Hoffman is a visiting academic fellow at the Mercator Institute for China Studies in Berlin. Her report, Social Credit: Technology-enhanced Authoritarian Control with Global Consequences, was published on Thursday by the Australian Strategic Policy Institute, a security-focused thinktank which has urged the Australian government take a harder line on Chinese government interference in its democracy.

Nathan Vanderklippe: Chinese blacklist an early glimpse of sweeping new social-credit control (Globe and Mail)

It’s fair to think of social credit as an updated version of the renshi dangan, the decades-old Communist Party system of maintaining detailed personal files on cadres, said Chen Tan, a scholar at Guangzhou University and an expert on the system.
Prone to abuse, the information in those secret files could easily end a person’s career.
But the social-credit system will not suffer such issues, since it will „also set standards for government,“ Prof. Chen said.

Jiang Zemin hatte schon auf dem XIV. Parteitag im Jahr 2002 von einem System der gesellschaftlichen Bonität bzw. der Vertrauenswürdigkeit gesprochen, und zwar im Zusammenhang mit der weiteren Stärkung von Marktmechanismen:
江泽民:在中国共产党第十六次全国代表大会上的报告(人民网)

健全现代市场体系,加强和完善宏观调控。在更大程度上发挥市场在资源配置中的基础性作用,健全统一、开放、竞争、有序的现代市场体系。推进资本市场的改革开放和稳定发展。发展产权、土地、劳动力和技术等市场。创造各类市场主体平等使用生产要素的环境。深化流通体制改革,发展现代流通方式。整顿和规范市场经济秩序,健全现代市场经济的社会信用体系,打破行业垄断和地区封锁,促进商品和生产要素在全国市场自由流动。

Ein experimentelles Vorläufersystem im Kreis Suīníng 睢宁 (Xúzhōu, Jiāngsū; siehe 睢宁县大众信用管理试行办法) im Jahr 2010 wurde in chinesischen Medien zum Teil noch ausgerechnet mit den Ausweisen bzw. Passierscheinen verglichen, welche die japanischen Besatzer an »verlässliche« Chines_innen ausgegeben hatten (ryōminshō 良民証).


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